Assessment Strategies and Complete Course Plan Essay
Table of Contents
Assessment Strategies and Complete Course Plan…………………………………………………………… 3
An Overview of the Course…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
Learning Theories and Diversity……………………………………………………………………………………. 6
Teaching Strategies……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
Management and Motivation……………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
Assessment Strategies and Complete Course Plan
The determination to provide quality care exert pressure on healthcare professionals to update their skills, knowledge, and competencies to match the intricacies and demands in the current healthcare systems. Amidst the prevailing demands for quality, effective, timely, and evidence-based care, nursing education systems must provide high-quality education to nursing students to enhance their competence and skills prerequisites for providing safe, convenient, and quality care. According to Ghasemi et al. (2020), nurse educators should adopt educational strategies that actively engage nursing students in learning activities in academic and clinical settings. More essentially, educational strategies should be responsive and sensitive to learners’ diversity perpetuated by differences in learning preferences, ethnic and racial identities, socioeconomic status, and sexual orientations. Therefore, nursing educators should derive insights from learning theories that underpin the concept of classroom management. This paper summarizes a teaching plan for nursing informatics education program by elaborating ideal learning theories, diversity, teaching strategies, approaches for classroom management and learners’ motivation, and assessment methods.
An Overview of the Course
The general topic for the course is nursing informatics, while the specific topic is nursing informatics theories and practice. Nursing students should acquire informatics competencies amidst the overarching need to incorporate information, data, and information technologies into nursing practices. According to McGonigle & Mastrian (2018), nursing informatics encompasses the science of identifying, defining, managing, and communicating data, information, knowledge, and wisdom in nursing practice. In this sense, nurses play a significant role in utilizing information systems and modalities to promote quality care delivery.
Nursing informatics derives insights from different theories and concepts that explain the importance of utilizing information in different healthcare contexts. One prominent theoretical paradigm that underpins nursing informatics is the DIKW (data, knowledge, information, and wisdom) concept. McGonigle & Mastrian (2018) argue that data is the smallest component of the DIKW theory since they entail discrete factors and are the products of observation with little interpretation. On the other hand, information refers to the meaning and constructs obtained from different data points. Subsequently, data and information contribute to knowledge and wisdom that guide musing practices and decisions (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2018). Based on the importance of nursing informatics in the current healthcare systems, implementing this course is consistent with the objective of empowering and preparing nursing students to provide quality, data-driven, and evidence-based care.
The target audience for the nursing education course are third year nursing students. The primary objective of targeting this section of learners is to empower them with the prerequisite knowledge necessary for effective and informed nursing practices and decisions. For instance, third-year students are on the verge of transitioning from learners to practitioners. It is essential to note that nursing students face multiple challenges during their transition from graduates to newly-employed healthcare professionals. Joseph et al. (2020) identify role expectation, confidence issues, workload, and fear as major challenges facing nursing graduates during their transition period. For example, working in new environments and contexts expose nursing graduates to new, complicated information systems. As a result, introducing nursing students to nursing informatics can equip them to navigate turbulent and ever-demanding healthcare contexts.
Nursing theories and practice course cuts across various components that form the basis of knowledge acquisition and skill advancement. For instance, Harerimana et al. (2020) contend that nursing informatics encompasses the competency to utilize and operate computer systems, including electronic documentation modalities, clinical decision support systems (CDSSs), and other computer systems. Also, nursing informatics constitutes various competencies, including knowledge and information management, regulatory, ethical, and professional accountability, and the usage of information and communication technologies to deliver safer, convenient, timely, and evidence-based care. Therefore, this course will include the follow sub-themes:
- An overview and introduction to nursing informatics theories
- Critical theories that support nursing informatics
- Informatics specialists within the healthcare
- Informatics competencies for healthcare professionals
Learning outcomes are sets of goals or descriptors that students should complete at the end of the teaching session. According to van Diggele et al. (2020), learning outcomes are knowledge, skills, and attitudes that form the basis of the overall expectations when delivering the course. It is essential to inform learners about learning outcomes to enlighten them on the potential expectations of the skills of focus of course. The nursing informatics course endeavors to achieve the following outcomes to be assessed by the end of the course:
- Appraise the fundamental concepts, terminologies, and theories that underpin nursing informatics
- Understand and grasp competencies with the nursing informatics specialty
- Critique nursing informatics theories and justify their application in nursing practice and decisions
- Develop skills in computer literacy
- Use information systems and computer literacy as the foundation for interdisciplinary collaboration and evidence-based care
- Develop analytical skills that align with the competency of analyzing health data sets
Application of Knowledge and Skills
- Utilize knowledge of nursing informatics in interdisciplinary collaboration and problem-solving processes
- Demonstrate adherence to professional, ethical, and regulatory requirements for handling, transferring, and utilizing health information and data sets
- Apply information technology in improving care coordination and quality
- Create a personal informatics competency plan consistent with the need for continuous professional development.
Learning Theories and Diversity
Often, a diversity deficit in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields is persistent in a classroom context. From a nursing education perspective, diversity in classroom manifests through a wider dimension. According to Goethe & Colina (2018), the traditional definition of classroom diversity encompasses differences in race, ethnicity, or gender. Equally, it is essential to consider differences in migration history, cultural attributes, including beliefs and practices, sexual orientation, disciplines, and disability when explaining classroom diversity. The University of Florida (UF)’s Diversity Action Plan adopts the broadest explanation of diversity that includes a diversity of experience, geographic background, talent, socioeconomic status, gender, race, ethnicity, perspectives, disciplines, and disability (Goethe & Colina, 2018, p. 189). Essentially, it is possible to adopt this broad definition of diversity when developing and implementing the nursing informatics course.
Instructors and nursing educators have an overarching responsibility of promoting diversity and inclusion in educational settings to address differences that affect students’ readiness and knowledge acquisition capabilities. Moreu et al. (2021) contend that women, people of color, and members of marginalized groups, such as LGBTQ+ community face multiple challenges in educational contexts. For instance, students from these group face exclusion from the mainstream educational activities, disrespect, discriminative behaviors and acts, and negative stereotypes. For example, the explicit and implicit perceptions that students of color are less intelligent and competent affect the learning activities by perpetuating disparities in academic performance and limited engagement in learning activities (Moreu et al., 2021). A growing body of current research and theoretical works suggests differentiated instructions and the cultivation of highly-inclusive learning environments as ideal strategies for responding to classroom diversity.
The sub-themes of these approaches encompass adopting teaching strategies that capitalize on learners’ experiences and promote instructional scaffolding to assist learners in achieving their learning goals and outcomes. Consequently, it is valid to contend that interventions for responding to learning disparities facilitated by classroom diversity incline toward the constructivism theory of learning.
The Constructivism Learning Theory and Perspectives
The art and practice of developing a highly-inclusive learning environment depends massively upon educational readiness and sequencing. According to Seifert & Sutton (2019), effective learning entails permanent changes in skills, behavior, knowledge, and attitudes emanating from psychological or social experiences. Various theories, including behaviorist models focus on what student do and the subsequent thresholds for behavioral changes upon the incorporation of different teaching strategies and interventions. However, these theories are deficient in explaining what students think and the role of their experiences in shaping the knowledge acquisition process.
The constructivism learning theory differs from other theoretical underpinnings of the learning process because it explains how learners construct knowledge from their experiences. In this sense, constructivists believe that learner are active in the learning process and can independently construct knowledge based on their experiences and cues from experienced people (Kumar Shah, 2019). This dimension of learning narrows down to two constructivist perspectives; psychological and social constructivism.
The psychological constructivism emanates from the theoretical works of reputable theorists, including John Dewey and Jean Piaget. According to Seifert & Sutton (2019), the primary premise of the psychological constructivism is that learners learn by mentally organizing and reorganizing new ideas and experiences. In this sense, they can effectively synthesize new experiences and knowledge by using prior experiences that are meaningful and well understood. According to Piaget’s perspective of psychopharmacologic constructivism, learners can acquire knowledge through assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation entails modifying experiences and concepts based on the pre-existing experiences and ideas. On the other hand, accommodation involves revising and modifying pre-existing concepts based on new information or experiences. The psychological constructivism dimension underscores the need to adopt interactive, creative, and teaching approaches that promote creativity, innovation, and the exploration of new concepts.
Unlike the psychological constructivism, social constructivists like Jerome Bruner and Lev Vygotsky believed that the relationships and interactions between learners and educators are central to the learning process. According to Knapp (2019), learners can effectively acquire knowledge and skills by interacting with experienced and more knowledgeable individuals in a specific field. For example, educators should be more knowledgeable and experienced in nursing informatics before developing and implementing the nursing informatics course. The second premise of the social constructivism theory is that instructional scaffolding is equally essential in promoting self-directed learning. Van Garderen et al. (2021) perceive instructional scaffolding as the practice of breaking down education content and instructions into small, understandable concepts. Also, this aspect entails providing and arranging learning materials to ensure access to content for all learners. Often, students experience difficulties in comprehending the text due to various underlying challenges, including a lack of background knowledge and inferencing skills. As a result, arranging and simplifying content is a profound strategy for enhancing learning and knowledge acquisition capabilities.
Similarly, instructional scaffolding can occur when educators assess students’ pre-existing knowledge, consider the learning objectives, and draw up a plan to advance learners’ current knowledge to mastering the learning goals. Examples of common scaffolding strategies in the nursing classroom contexts include explaining complex concepts and texts, supporting students’ metacognitive activities through active engagement, enhancing learners’ affect, providing clues and suggestions, and offering opportunities for behavioral modeling. Other scaffolding interventions include providing supplementary resources to support teaching and learning, providing physical, verbal, and positional prompts, and adopting advanced content organizers, such as flow charts, rubrics, outlines, and Venn diagrams for presenting new information and concepts. These approaches are vital in assisting learners to grasp content and eliminating barriers to learning among a highly-diverse learners.
The methods of delivering teaching instructions for the nursing informatics course should be consistent with psychological and social constructivist dimensions. It is essential to note that teaching nursing students about nursing informatics translates to their future competencies in delivery data-driven and evidence-based practice. According to Horntvedt et al. (2018), educators should adopt interactive approaches when teaching students about evidence-based practice. Effective teaching methods should emphasize learners’ engagement and the advancement of the pre-existing knowledge to the mastery of the learning content.
Physical interactions between learners and educators are central to the learning process. Classroom lectures allow educators to deliver course content and closely monitor learners’ participation in learning activities. Abulhul (2021) contends that the physical delivery of the course content promotes deep learning by enhancing interactive teaching approaches, including discussions and end-of-class questions. As captured in the course content, teaching nursing students about nursing informatics theories and models entails breaking down the content into understandable concepts, including informatics theories and models and competencies within nursing informatics specialties. Classroom lectures that focus on these themes blend well with other interactive teaching strategies, include the incorporation of visual aids and group learning.
Online learning through technology-aided modalities like video-conferences are equally essential in facilitating learning activities. According to Abulhul (2021), applying technologies in learning enables educators to track students’ progress and enhance the learning process. In this sense, learning gain understanding of the class materials and advance their critical thinking skills upon accessing online resources. More essentially, online learning saves time and promote learners’ self-learning initiatives. For example, students develop a sense of self-initiative by accessing and participating in online learning. Also, this teaching strategy can promote the integration of interactive teaching interventions like narrated PowerPoints and demonstrations.
Unlike other learning methods that reserve the responsibility of setting learning goals and objectives to educators, self-directed learning allows students to set goals, influence the progress, and define the structure and sequence of learning activities. Robinson & Persky (2020) argue that teachers can Improve self-directed learning by applying appropriate scaffolding strategies, including simplifying instructions, providing learning materials to enable access to all learners, and providing support through to regular progress tracking. Although this approach can improve learners’ self-confidence and alleviate pressure, educators should implement policies and practices for addressing less motivation, time wastage, and complexities encountered when assessing learners’ performance and progress.
Management and Motivation
Classroom management amidst learners’ diversity is a complex endeavor. According to Due Plessis (2019), challenges that constrain classroom management practices include limited support from school management, educators’ lack of experience, the pre-existing negative perceptions that anchor discrimination, and the absence of belongingness to the subject matter. Also, student dispositions and situational disharmony can affect effective implementation of nursing education course. Learners from marginalized groups demonstrate less motivation to participate in learning activities due to their predisposition to discrimination and exclusion. As a result, schools encounter disparities in academic performance.
Students’ motivation is central to their involvement in learning activities and the subsequent improvement on academic performance. According to Saeedi et al. (2021), motivated students are often attentive to curriculum activities and develop an initiative to choose ideal learning and studying styles consistent with the overall learning objectives. Educators should adopt evidence-based practices and strategies for motivating learners. Saeedi et al. (2021) recommend high-quality simulation, designed game simulation, mobile-based learning, case-based learning, team-based learning, and virtual clinical excursion as ideal strategies for motivating nursing students. Although these approaches align with the need to involve learners in learning activities, they can be irresponsive to diversity if the tenet of cultural competency is lacking.
Cultural competence starts with professional consciousness and accommodating cultural diversity in the classroom context. According to Gradellini et al. (2021), cultural competence entails cultural awareness, knowledge, skills, and desires. It is a profound concept for addressing discrimination and implicit/explicit negative perceptions that facilitate stereotypes toward people of specific ethnic, racial, and cultural orientation. Cultural competence on teaching manifests through respecting learners’ values, beliefs, and practices that emanate from sociocultural perspectives. Equally, it entails modifying behavior and challenging firmly held stereotypes toward people of different cultures and backgrounds. Consequently, a culturally responsive pedagogical approach can promote learners’ motivation, enhance socialization, and improve learning processes.
The end-goal of implementing various teaching strategies is to promote knowledge acquisition and enhance competency advancement to the mastery of the course content. However, based on the learning diversity and differences in the effectiveness of teaching strategies, it is essential to frequently evaluate students’ levels of knowledge acquisition and course mastery. According to Basera (2019), assessment encompasses instructor-driven activities for gathering data on learned regarding the effectiveness of the education delivery and the students’ ability to grasp learned materials. In this sense, assessment approaches should align with learning outcomes and emphasize the achievement of learners’ goals. In the context of nursing informatics course, assessment approaches are primarily formative or summative
Formative assessment strategies emphasize short-term collection of learners’ information and using this evidence to guide learning activities. These interventions are continuous and occur during the learning period to provide information regarding the learners’ progress and ideal opportunities for curriculum developing. Basera (2019) argues that formative assessment methods may contribute to the final mark or just act as forms of ordinary evaluation. Examples of effective formative assessment approaches are end-of-class questions, short in-class tests, homework exercises, weekly assignments and discussion forums, and student portfolios.
Unlike formative assessments, summative evaluation methods are effective in judging the learner’s extent of grasping the course materials. They are post-learning tools that explore the effectiveness of the curriculum delivery and the level of students’ knowledge acquisition after the implementation of various teaching strategies (Basera, 2019). Effective summative assessment approaches include end-of-semester examinations, projects, term papers, and portfolios. Before commencing on curriculum implementation for nursing informatics course, educators should provide guidelines and criteria for formative and summative assessments. Often, rubrics (Appendix 1) and outlines are profound tools for enlightening learners about competency expectations and the thresholds for achieving the course’s learning outcomes. Once learners familiarize themselves with competencies that underpin the course, they can set targets and channel adequate efforts to achieve the assessment thresholds.
A nursing informatics course is consistent with the overarching objective of educating nursing students about evidence-based practice and advancing computer literacy skills. This course focuses on the theoretical underpinnings of nursing informatics and seeks to empower students to provide data-driven and evidence-based care upon their transition from graduates to healthcare professionals. By the end of the course, learners should demonstrate a comprehensive grasp of the content and exhibit advancement in knowledge and various skill levels, including analytical and application skills.
From an instructor’s perspective, it is crucial to implement teaching strategies that align with the constructivism learning theory which emphasizes learners’ engagement in the learning process and a thorough consideration of their experiences. Also, the constructivist perspective of learning encourages instructional scaffolding, a process of providing and arranging learning materials to ensure access among all learners. Besides instructional scaffolding and other elements of constructivism, educators should motivate learners by responding to and respecting diversity and utilizing formative and summative assessment strategies consistent with the learning outcomes. For example, end-of-class questions, group presentations, quizzes, discussions, term papers, and portfolios are effective tools for assessing learners’ performance and enhancing their engagement in learning activities.
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Appendix 1: A Rubric for Assignment One: Description of the Expectations from the Assignment
|Content||Comprehensive review and synthesis of informatics theories and their application to nursing practice. Excellent development of ideas and arguments||A relatively good grasp of the topic with support for ideas and arguments||Superficial development of the topic with inadequate scholarly support. Inconsistent and vague arguments based on primarily opinion.||Weak awareness of the assignment instructions. Unclear ideas and arguments that lack scholarly insights||Out-of-context ideas. Poorly-developed ideas. Lack of awareness of scholarly thresholds for an essay-formatted paper.|
|Organization||Logical organization, clear topic sentences, thesis statement with little-to-no identifiable mistakes||A clear focus of the paper, good organization, and mild errors. Transitions are reasonably clear||The paper is understandable but lacks coherence and evident transitions.||A weak organization with a random focus. Does not respond to assignment prompts||Disorganized and difficult to follow. Does not adhere to paper instructions and testable competencies.|
|Grammar/Spelling/Punctuation||Good grammar, limited errors, correct punctuation, and spelling. Adheres to all writing mechanisms.||Notable adherence to writing mechanics. Only minor errors in grammar, Spelling, and punctuation.||Several mechanical errors in grammar, Spelling, and punctuation. Struggles to comply with the use of standard English||Significant errors that interfere with the communication of ideas.||Inappropriate grammar, erroneous spelling, and a complete non-adherence to writing mechanics. Inappropriate for a scholarly audience.|
|APA/References||Total adherence to APA format, including various levels of headings and references||Very few lapses in the APA format||Identifiable mistakes in APA format, including in references and in-text citations||Reference errors are significant, signaling a non-adherence to APA format.||References are incomplete or lacking, a gross violation of APA format thresholds, including in-text citation entries and alignment of headings and subheadings.|
Create a complete teaching plan for your course that fuses together all previous course components and includes the addition of a detailed assessment plan.
Your complete teaching plan should provide:
An overview of the course topic, environment, and learner population.
An explanation of the learner outcomes for the course as well as the learning theory or theories that are the foundation of the course.
An incorporation of evidence-based best practices to enhance learner motivation in your selected learning environment and format.
An integration of appropriate teaching strategies, techniques, and learner outcomes for nursing and healthcare education for use in specific situations and populations and of evidence-based best practices for classroom and learner management.
A consideration of barriers to learning when designing and developing educational programs and an integration of cultural competence in nursing and healthcare educational offerings.
A logical, well-designed assessment plan that addresses these points:
A selection of assessment types that are most appropriate for the content, environment, and learner population.
An explanation of how you will evaluate whether or not learning outcomes were accomplished in the course, and how assessments will demonstrate that learners have learned as intended.
An analysis of how your selected assessment types support cultural competence as well as fit for learners with varied learning styles.
Organize your plan as follows:
Table of Contents.
An overview of your course (topic, setting audience, and so on).
Learning Theories and Diversity (Assessment 1).
Teaching Strategies (Assessment 2).
Management and Motivation (Assessment 3).
Assessment Strategies (designed in this Assessment).
Your completed plan should be clear and flow together well. It should show cohesion, understanding, and the application of best practices, and all writing should be professional and free of errors.
Format: 12-point Times New Roman or Arial font, double-spaced in Microsoft Word.
Length: 12â€“15 pages, plus a title page and a references page.
Use correct APA format, including running head, page numbers, and a title page.
Use and cite at least 10 references, and at least five of them from peer-reviewed journals that are not required for this course.
Writing should be free of grammar and spelling errors that distract from content.
By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the course competencies through the following assessment scoring guide criteria:
Competency 1: Appraise the influence of learner’s culture, gender, and experiences on teaching and learning.
Apply knowledge of methods of thinking, learning, and communicating to specific learning situations.
Consider barriers to learning when designing and developing educational programs.
Integrate cultural competence in nursing and healthcare educational offerings.
Competency 2: Apply educational theory and evidence-based teaching practices when implementing teaching strategies.
Apply appropriate theory to optimize the teaching experience and learner outcomes.
Competency 3: Apply a variety of teaching strategies appropriate to diverse learner needs, content, and desired learner outcomes.
Incorporate evidence-based best practices to enhance learner motivation in a selected learning environment and format.
Integrate appropriate teaching strategies, techniques, and outcomes for nursing and healthcare education for use in specific situations and populations.
Design appropriate and meaningful assessments for a course.
Competency 4: Integrate best practices for classroom management.
Integrate evidence-based best practices for classroom and learner management.
Competency 5: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with the expectations of a nursing education professional.
Develop a teaching plan for a selected topic that demonstrates flow, cohesion, and application of best practices.
Support identified position with effective written communication using appropriate spelling, grammar, punctuation and mechanics, and APA style and formatting.