Module 2 Case Study Analysis Essay

Module 2 Case Study Analysis Essay


Module 2 Case Study

Module 2 case scenario was about A 76-year-old female patient with a history of congestive heart failure who is experiencing weight gain, shortness of breath, peripheral edema, and abdominal swelling. She has not been taking her prescribed diuretic due to the frequency of needing to use the bathroom. As a result, she has difficulty breathing and must sleep on two pillows to get enough air. The purpose of this paper is to explain cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes for this patient’s signs and symptoms, explain how these processes interact to impact the patient’s physiologic, and explain any racial and ethnic variables that may impact the physiological functioning of the patient.

Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiologic Processes for Heart Failure

Heart failure has multisystemic outcomes and risks contributing to mortality and disability among heart failure patients. Perfusion is the primary role of the heart and the entire cardiovascular system. However, the lungs also play a critical role in this process of oxygen delivery to tissues (Schwinger, 2021). Therefore, cardiopulmonary processes are responsible for the initial outcomes of heart failure.

In heart failure, the heart cannot sufficiently pump blood to perfuse endogens, including the heart itself. This happens because the heart is unable to generate adequate cardiac output (CO). According to McCance and Huether (2019), a prolonged diastolic filling is another process through which heart failure leads to cardiopulmonary symptoms. Pulmonary symptoms arise from increasing pulmonary capillary pressures that happen when the heart cannot fill adequately. This pulmonary hypertension leads to pulmonary edema, thus, fluid retention in the lungs. The fluid retention causes difficulty in breathing and orthopnea. Therefore, the patient requires extra pillows at night to sleep so that the fluid can settle down due to gravity.

Interaction Between these Processes

Heart failure can be viewed as a hemodynamic disorder where diminished cardiac contractility, prolonged post-diastolic filling, limitation in ventricular wall tension, and alterations in heart rate can work to diminish perfusion to end organs. In the presence of pulmonary edema and congestions due to pulmonary capillary hypertension, processes in heart failure can lead to hypoxemia. Hypoxemia has outcomes that can impact the brain as well as the kidney (McCance & Huether, 2019). Hypoxia and hypoperfusion from the cardiopulmonary processes can cause acute kidney injury from renal hypoperfusion. Therefore, heart failure presents critical outcomes for this patient’s renal health.

Racial Variable that may Impact Physiological Functioning

Heart failure is one of the cardiovascular conditions with disparities in race and ethnicity. According to expert analysis by Breathett (2022), mortalities from heart failure and related complications are more likely among African Americans. African American women have the highest prevalence of heart failure. The risk of complications and death among blacks is 2.6- and 2.97-fold higher (Nayak et al., 2020). Access to special care is the major reason behind this racial disparity.


Heart failure results in hemodynamic insufficiency that impacts other organs and the heart itself. Diminished cardiac contractility, prolonged post-diastolic filling, limitation in ventricular wall tension, and alterations in heart rate are processes that can cause end-organ changes. Pulmonary edema causes shortness of breath. Racial disparities in access to treatment and outcomes of heart failure are worse among blacks than other races.



Breathett, K. (2022, October 1). Latest Evidence on Racial Inequities and Biases in Advanced Heart Failure. American College of Cardiology.,of%20heart%20failure%20than%20Whites.&text=African%2DAmerican%20women%20have%20a,and%20sex%20in%20the%20US.

McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). Mosby.

Nayak, A., Hicks, A. J., & Morris, A. A. (2020). Understanding the complexity of heart failure risk and treatment in Black patients. Circulation. Heart Failure13(8), e007264.

Schwinger, R. H. G. (2021). Pathophysiology of heart failure. Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy11(1), 263–276.

Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis-not including title page, references)

In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the following points:

The cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes that result in the patient presenting these symptoms.
Any racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning.
How these processes interact to affect the patient.


Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references, in APA format. Peer reviewed journal reporting published in last 5 years, classroom textbook. Reserve MerckManuel, StatPearls as resources to support your primary references. At least 3 primary references are needed for submission.


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