Week 9 Discussion: Using the Excel Sheet and Descriptive Statistics Essay
Descriptive statistics are methods of describing characteristics of a data set by generating summaries about the data sample. Descriptive statistics are often depicted as a summary of data demonstrated that explains the contents of data. According to Kaliyadan and Kulkarni (2019), descriptive statistics consist of three basic categories of measures, namely measures of central tendency, measures of variability, and frequency distribution. Measures of central tendency describe the center of the data set and include mean, mode, and median (Kaliyadan & Kulkarni, 2019). The mean is the average, while the mode of a data set is the value that appears most often. On the other hand, the median is the figure situated in the middle of the data set. The measures of variability explore the dispersion of a data set and include variance and standard deviation. Finally, measures of frequency describe the occurrence of data within a data set.
Data analysis is a critical component of research as it repurposes large quantities of data into meaningful information. Several data analysis software exist, including IBM SPSS and Microsoft Excel. Understanding how to use this software is crucial as it correlates to the accuracy of the analysis. Microsoft Excel descriptive statistics can be used to summarize the characteristics of a data set. The table below represents the results of data analysis of math anxiety for 20 students with study variables (cringe, uneasy, afraid, worried, and understanding). The math anxiety score ranged from 1 to 5, reflecting the lowest to highest scores. Data analysis with Excel revealed a median and average age of 33.5 and 36. 2 years for the participants, respectively. The descriptive statistics revealed a mean anxiety score of 3.25, 3.70, 3.55, 2.60, and 3.05 for cringe, uneasy, afraid, worried, and understand, respectively. Additionally, the average amount of variability within the data set was 1.37, 1.30, 1.15, 1.19, and 1.36 for cringe, uneasy, afraid, worried, and understand, respectively.
Cringe | Uneasy | Afraid | Worried | Understand | |
Average | 3.25 | 3.7 | 3.55 | 2.6 | 3.05 |
Median | 3.5 | 4 | 3.5 | 2.5 | 3 |
standard deviation | 1.37 | 1.3 | 1.15 | 1.19 | 1.36 |
Mode | 4 | 5 | 3 | 2 | 3 |
Variance | 1.89 | 1.69 | 1.31 | 1.41 | 1.84 |
Average Age | 36.2 | ||||
Median Age | 33.5 |
Microsoft Excel provides an excellent user-centered and interactive interface for carrying out descriptive statistics (Divisi et al., 2018). It also provides quick and easier data storage and retrieval. Similarly, data entry is much easier. Consequently, Excel descriptive statistics is an effective, efficient, quick, and easier way of summarizing characteristics of a data set into useful information.
Navigating through this program reveals several statistical functions which can’t be learned in a single setting. In addition, understanding these statistical functions is central to future nursing practice, which consists of research and evidence-based practice (Taylor et al., 2020). As a researcher, understanding data analysis with Excel gives an added advantage as it may shorten the duration of research by decreasing the usually lengthy and time-consuming data analysis section (Taylor et al., 2020). Also, comprehensively understanding data analysis with Excel enormously stretches the accuracy of data analysis and hence the reliability and validity of the findings. Similarly, understanding these statistical functions empowers one with skills and expertise that can be income-generating. Consequently, to enhance my knowledge and skills in Excel, I intend to learn more about excel by watching videos and reading manuals and handbooks while simultaneously putting into practice and rehearsing on Excel. Finally, I will enroll in a part-time course for this computer package.
Graphical presentation of data is necessary as it provides a pictorial summary of the data sets. Additionally, it makes the results section visually appealing to stakeholders and saves time. Below are graphs for the math anxiety analysis.
Bar Graph
Histogram for Cringe
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Bar graph for standard deviation and Variance
References
Divisi, D., Di Leonardo, G., Zaccagna, G., & Crisci, R. (2018). Basic statistics with Microsoft Excel: a review. Journal of Thoracic Disease, 9(6), 1734–1740. https://doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2017.05.81
Kaliyadan, F., & Kulkarni, V. (2019). Types of variables, descriptive statistics, and sample size. Indian Dermatology Online Journal, 10(1), 82–86. https://doi.org/10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_468_18
Taylor, D. M., Hodkinson, P. W., Khan, A. S., & Simon, E. L. (2020). Research skills and the data spreadsheet: A research primer for low- and middle-income countries. African Journal of Emergency Medicine: Revue Africaine de La Medecine d’urgence, 10(Suppl 2), S140–S144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.afjem.2020.05.003
Discussion Question
Using the Excel Sheet and descriptive statistics page; you will write up your analysis for the 20 participants.
This week, you learned about the statistical software applications used to analyze data for research analysis. For this week’s discussion, you will use Excel sheet provide to run descriptive statistics, create graphs and respond to the following:
- How could you use Excel descriptive statistics for data analysis research?
- What are your plans for learning more about Excel and how will the information you learned about this software be of benefit in your future analysis of research data?
Refer to this week’s readings and video tutorials before starting this two part discussion question assignment.
Step 1: Entering Data
Open a blank worksheet in the Excel program
You will now use Excel to view a sample dataset
Dataset Options
In many cases, researchers may have the data from their study in another software package like Microsoft Excel. However, if the data is not available in a software spreadsheet you can manually enter the data. Option 2: Manual Data Entry
In the Worksheet window, type “Age” in C1. Enter the numbers as shown in the dataset below. Enter the remaining data as shown below (set up your column labels i.e., variable). The measure reflects math anxiety and the study variables (cringe, uneasy, afraid, worried, understand) the math anxiety range is from 1–5 with low being the least and 5 the highest.
Age | Cringe | Uneasy | Afraid | Worried | Understand |
28 | 5 | 3 | 4 | 4 | 3 |
34 | 2 | 5 | 3 | 2 | 1 |
25 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 2 | 5 |
56 | 3 | 4 | 3 | 1 | 2 |
23 | 5 | 4 | 3 | 3 | 4 |
29 | 1 | 5 | 3 | 2 | 3 |
30 | 3 | 3 | 5 | 2 | 5 |
59 | 2 | 5 | 5 | 1 | 2 |
45 | 4 | 2 | 5 | 3 | 3 |
38 | 1 | 2 | 4 | 1 | 1 |
33 | 3 | 2 | 4 | 3 | 2 |
47 | 4 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |
24 | 1 | 5 | 3 | 4 | 4 |
29 | 5 | 4 | 2 | 1 | 3 |
53 | 3 | 1 | 5 | 2 | 1 |
48 | 4 | 4 | 1 | 5 | 3 |
27 | 2 | 5 | 4 | 3 | 4 |
34 | 4 | 4 | 3 | 2 | 5 |
26 | 4 | 5 | 2 | 3 | 2 |
36 | 5 | 5 | 5 | 4 | 3 |
Step 2: Click on Excel tab for Add Ins; if you do not see statistics; you will need to open the file option; click on Add ins; click on ok; a box will open which will allow you to choose Statistics package; place a check mark in the box and click ok. How to Run Descriptive Statistics
Now that your data is in Excel, you will look at the descriptive statistics for this dataset. Select the data in all the columns except the top that has words for the columns; however you have the file already completed and a picture of the descriptive statistics..See end of page for a copy of the excel sheet and descriptive statistics output.
Discussion Question Part 1
How could you use Excel descriptive statistics for data analysis research? Write about your experience running descriptive statistics. Use the results in the Session Window to support your response. Then add to your discussion with the information you learn writing up your analysis.
Step 3: Excel and Graphs
You will now look at graphing. Select insert graph located at the top of the sheet; highlight the data you want to use for a chart; select the type of chart; select ok. Try using the histogram feature for one of the variables and select “Ok”. You can create other Histogram graphs by choosing different variables. You can also choose from the other ten graph choices shown on the insert chart function.
Discussion Question Part 2
- What are your plans for learning more about Excel and how will the information you learned about this software be of benefit in your future analysis of research data?
- Copy and paste your graph(s) in a Word document and attach to your discussion response.
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****************************************************************************************RUBRIC 1
Response | No Submission
0 points |
Emerging (F-D: 1-4)
4 points |
Satisfactory (C: 5-6)
6 points |
Proficient (B: 7-8)
8 points |
Exemplary (A: 9-10)
10 points |
Criterion Score |
Quality of Initial Posting | No initial posting exists to evaluate. | The information provided is inaccurate, not focused on the assignment’s topic, and/or does not answer the question(s) fully. Response demonstrates incomplete understanding of the topic and/or inadequate preparation. | The information provided is accurate, giving a basic understanding of the topic(s) covered. A basic understanding is when you are able to describe the terms and concepts covered. Despite this basic understanding, initial posting may not include complete development of all aspects of the assignment. | The information provided is accurate, displaying a good understanding of the topic(s) covered. A good understanding is when you are able to explain the terms and topics covered. Initial posting demonstrates sincere reflection and addresses most aspects of the assignment, although all concepts may not be fully developed. | The information provided is accurate, providing an in-depth, well thought-out understanding of the topic(s) covered. An in-depth understanding provides an analysis of the information, synthesizing what is learned from the course/assigned readings. | Score of Quality of Initial Posting,
/ 10 |
Participation | No Submission
0 points |
Emerging (F-D: 1-2)
2 points |
Satisfactory (C)
3 points |
Proficient (B)
4 points |
Exemplary (A:)
5 points |
Criterion Score |
Participation in Discussion | No responses to other classmates were posted in this discussion forum. | May include one or more of the following: *Comments to only one other student’s post. *Comments are not substantive, such as just one line or saying, “Good job” or “I agree. *Comments are off topic. |
Comments to two or more classmates’ initial posts but only on one day of the week. Comments are substantive, meaning they reflect and expand on what the other student wrote. | Comments to two or more classmates’ initial posts on more than one day. Comments are substantive, meaning they reflect and expand on what the other student wrote. | Comments to two or more classmates’ initial posts and to the instructor’s comment (if applicable) on two or more days. Responses demonstrate an analysis of peers’ comments, building on previous posts. Comments extend and deepen meaningful conversation and may include a follow-up question. | Score of Participation in Discussion,
/ 5 |
Writing | No Submission
0 points |
Emerging (F-D: 1-2)
2 points |
Satisfaction (C)
3 points |
Proficient (B)
4 points |
Exemplary (A)
5 points |
Criterion Score |
Writing Mechanics (Spelling, Grammar, Citation Style) and Information Literacy | No postings for which to evaluate language and grammar exist. | Numerous issues in any of the following: grammar, mechanics, spelling, use of slang, and incomplete or missing citations and references. If required for the assignment, did not use course, text, and/or outside readings (where relevant) to support work. | Some spelling, grammatical, and/or structural errors are present. Some errors in formatting citations and references are present. If required for the assignment, utilizes sources to support work for initial post but not comments to other students. Sources include course/text readings but outside sources (when relevant) include non-academic/authoritative, such as Wikis and .com resources. | Minor errors in grammar, mechanics, or spelling in the initial posting are present. Minor errors in formatting citations and references may exist. If required for the assignment, utilizes sources to support work for both the initial post and some of the comments to other students. Sources include course and text readings as well as outside sources (when relevant) that are academic and authoritative (e.g., journal articles, other text books, .gov Web sites, professional organization Web sites, cases, statutes, or administrative rules). | Minor to no errors exist in grammar, mechanics, or spelling in both the initial post and comments to others. Formatting of citations and references is correct. If required for the assignment, utilizes sources to support work for both the initial post and the comments to other students. Sources include course and text readings as well as outside sources (when relevant) that are academic and authoritative (e.g., journal articles, other text books, .gov Web sites, professional organization Web sites, cases, statutes, or administrative rules). | Score of Writing Mechanics (Spelling, Grammar, Citation Style) and Information Literacy,
/ 5 |
Total 20/ 20
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RUBRIC 2
Participation | No Submission
0 points |
Emerging (F-D: 1-2)
2 points |
Satisfactory (C)
3 points |
Proficient (B)
4 points |
Exemplary (A:)
5 points |
Criterion Score |
Discuss your library search strategies and briefly summarize the literature you reviewed. Focus your discussion on the “problem” and how the literature you identified provides evidence of the existence of the problem. | Student did not submit assignment | Student provided an under-developed description of the for problem with little or no analysis of supportive evidence for the problem identified. | Student provided a minimally developed description of of problem with limited analysis of supportive evidence for the problem identified. | Student provided a developed description of the required elements for for the problem identified with reasonable analysis of concepts and related issues. | Student provided a fully developed description of the required the “problem” and how the literature you identified provides evidence of the existence of the problem. | Score of Discuss your library search strategies and briefly summarize the literature you reviewed. Focus your discussion on the “problem” and how the literature you identified provides evidence of the existence of the problem.,
/ 5 |
Include in your discussion a potential innovation that you might consider as a solution to the problem identified. | Student did not submit assignment. | Student provided a under-developed discussion of how the problem and solution are viable with little or no analysis of concepts and related issues. | Student provided a minimally developed discussion of how selected innovation with limited analysis of concepts and related issues. | Student provided a developed discussion of potential innovations no older than 5 years since publication with reasonable analysis of concepts and related issues. | Student provided a fully developed discussion of potential innovation for problem identified. | Score of Include in your discussion a potential innovation that you might consider as a solution to the problem identified.,
/ 5 |
Include citations/references in APA style format, using citations where appropriate. | Student did not submit assignment. | Demonstrates limited sentence, paragraph, and essay level skills. Has limited use of evidence with few or no sources to support the content. Does not meet the graduate level of writing and does not meet the minimum requirement. Demonstrates limited APA formatting with multiple formatting errors. | Demonstrates minimally developed sentence, paragraph, and essay level skills. Minimally meets the graduate level with several writing issues and meets the minimum reference requirement. Demonstrates minimally developed APA formatting with several formatting errors. | Demonstrates developed sentence, paragraph, and essay level skills. Meets the graduate level with minimal writing issues and exceeds the minimum reference requirement. Demonstrates developed APA formatting with minimal formatting errors. | Demonstrates fully developed sentence, paragraph and essay level skills. Meets the graduate level with no writing issues and exceeds the minimum reference requirement. Demonstrates fully developed APA formatting with no errors. | Score of Include citations/references in APA style format, using citations where appropriate.,
/ 5 |
Writing | No Submission
0 points |
Emerging (F-D: 1-2)
2 points |
Satisfaction (C)
3 points |
Proficient (B)
4 points |
Exemplary (A)
5 points |
Criterion Score |
Participation No later than by the end of the week, review and comment on the discussion question responses posted by at least two of your peers. | Student did not submit assignment. | Demonstrates limited sentence, paragraph, and essay level skills. Has limited use of evidence with few or no sources to support the content. Does not meet the graduate level of writing and does not meet the minimum requirement. Demonstrates limited APA formatting with multiple formatting errors. | Demonstrates minimally developed sentence, paragraph, and essay level skills. Minimally meets the graduate level with several writing issues and meets the minimum reference requirement. Demonstrates minimally developed APA formatting with several formatting errors. | Demonstrates developed sentence, paragraph, and essay level skills. Meets the graduate level with minimal writing issues and exceeds the minimum reference requirement. Demonstrates developed APA formatting with minimal formatting errors. | Demonstrates fully developed sentence, paragraph and essay level skills. Meets the graduate level with no writing issues and exceeds the minimum reference requirement. Demonstrates fully developed APA formatting with no errors. | Score of Participation No later than by the end of the week, review and comment on the discussion question responses posted by at least two of your peers.,
/ 5 |
Total
Score of NSG6101 Discussion Rubric (20 Points) – Version 1.0,