NR717- Epidemiology and Health Surveillance Essay
Epidemiologic Principles and Measures Used
The health problem selected for the population is health disparities among African Americans in Jackson, Mississippi. Understanding social determinants of health, adopting a lifespan perspective, and creating culturally sensitive interventions are the epidemiological principles used to reduce racial health inequalities (Celentano & Szklo, 2019). The methodology includes analyzing data from population-based surveys on factors such as community environment, incidences, and death rates (Celentano & Szklo, 2019). For instance, because they are less likely to have access to good schools and medical facilities, young black men have a death rate five times greater than young white men.
Use of Descriptive and Analytic Epidemiology
Descriptive epidemiology seeks to understand the nature of health inequalities and the factors contributing to their existence, such as patient and provider demographics and care availability (Platt, 2022). How widespread an illness is, how it varies with age and gender, and whether or not there are any trends can all be answered using this information. On the other hand, analytic epidemiology studies aim to verify a hypothesis on the etiology of health inequalities (CDC, 2019). The goal is to disentangle variations in risky practices or underlying genetic traits from those individuals linked with exposure.
Use of Surveillance to Influence the Determinants of Health
Surveillance would help me take samples from various neighborhood regions and compare them to those from other parts to detect issues in the population and develop viable remedies. This can aid in diagnosing health problems, allowing the most appropriate actions to be implemented. Additionally, it can help identify the intervention requirements and track their success (Celentano & Szklo, 2019). This can be useful for determining if the currently used intervention is working as planned or if it needs to be modified.
The collected and analyzed data should be able to benefit all individuals who have been studied. It is unethical that results from research benefit only a few community members. It is ethically sound to inform the target population about the findings and how well they can utilize them to achieve positive health outcomes.
Celentano, D., & Szklo, M. (2019). Gordis epidemiology (6th ed.). Elsevier.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Principles of epidemiology. Accessed on March 5th from https://www.cdc.gov/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson1/section7.html
Platt, W. (2022). The importance of descriptive epidemiology. American Journal of Epidemiology. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwac153
Epidemiology and Health Surveillance
The purpose of this discussion is to apply concepts in epidemiology and health surveillance to a selected population.
Explore the determinants of health and the National Practice Problems that most affect the population you selected in Week 1. Review the following index to locate an epidemiological report published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Link (website): CDC A-Z IndexLinks to an external site.
This report contains data on specific diseases as reported by state and regional health departments, as well as recommendations that have been issued by the CDC.
Use the index to review the most significant issue pertaining to your selected population and one of the eight National Practice Problems to address the following:
Explore the epidemiologic principles and measures used to address your selected practice problem at the national and specific geographic (city or county level) location for the population you have selected.
Examine the use of descriptive and/or analytic epidemiology to address the practice problem.
Propose how you might use surveillance to influence the determinants of health and improve the health outcomes of your population.
Anticipate any ethical concerns that you might have related to the use of surveillance data in your population.
Please click on the following link to review the DNP Discussion Guidelines on the Student Resource Center program page:
Link (webpage): DNP Discussion GuidelinesLinks to an external site.
This discussion enables the student to meet the following program competencies:
Analyzes health care policies to advocate for equitable health care and social justice to all populations and those at risk due to social determinants of health. (POs 2, 9)
Translates a synthesis of research and population data to support preventative care and improve the nation’s health. (PO 1)
Leads others in professional identity, advanced clinical judgment, systems thinking, resilience, and accountability in selecting, implementing, and evaluating clinical care. (PO 1)
This discussion enables the student to meet the following course outcomes:
Synthesize ethical and legal principles to advocate for value-based, equitable, and ethical health policies at the micro, meso, and macrosystem levels. (PC 5; PO 9)
Assimilate epidemiology principles and interventions to impact the social determinants of health, Global Burden of Disease, and population health outcomes. (PCs 7, 8; PO 1)