APA Citations and References Essay

APA Citations and References Essay

When consulting the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), you will find valuable guidance on the essential aspects of citing in text and formatting references. Here are three essential items to remember about citing in text and formatting references while writing papers based on the APA guidelines.

Citing in Text:

  1. Author-Date Format: When citing sources within the text, use the author-date format. This means including the author’s last name and the publication year in parentheses. For example: (Jane, 2022). If you directly quote the source, include the page number as well: (Jane, 2022, p. 45).
  2. Multiple Authors: Include both names in every citation when a source has two authors. For instance: (Bryan & Mark, 2019). If a source has three or more authors, use the first author’s name followed by “et al.” in subsequent citations (Bryan et al., 2020).
  3. Citing Electronic Sources: When citing online or electronic sources, provide the author, date, and specific section or paragraph number (if available) in the in-text citation. Use the closest equivalent (e.g., chapter, section, or paragraph number) if there are no page numbers.


Formatting References

  1. Reference Page: Include a separate reference page at the end of your paper to provide full details of all the sources cited in your work. The reference page should have the title “References” centered at the top, with entries listed alphabetically by the first author’s last name.
  2. Formatting Guidelines: Follow specific formatting guidelines for different types of sources. For example, book references should include the author’s name, publication year, book title, publisher, and place of publication (Iida & American Psychological Association, 2021). Online sources require the URL, DOI, and retrieval dates if the content is likely to change.
  3. Hanging Indents: Format the reference list with hanging indents, where the first line of each entry is flush left, and subsequent lines are indented. This style enhances readability and makes it easier for readers to locate the necessary information.



Iida, P., & American Psychological Association. (2021). The concise APA handbook: APA 7th edition. Information Age Publishing, Inc.

In your Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, locate the information about ‘citations in text’ and ‘reference examples’. Share with your classmates 3 items to remember about citing in text and 3 items to remember about formatting references while writing papers.


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