Annotated Bibliography Essay

Annotated Bibliography

  • Nisbett, Richard E. “The Achievement Gap: Past, Present & Future.” Daedalus 140, no. 2 (2011): 90-100. Accessed April 5, 2021.
    • In the early 2000s, ten years prior to the article, Congress passed the No Child Left Behind Act which ensured the elimination of racial and class gaps in educational achievement by 2014. This article does a good job of criticizing the act as one could consider it condescending and even a mockery. The author reiterates this act as a mockery because the timeline was unreasonable, efforts were barely made, and the act was underfunded. This is evident in today’s schooling system as public, predominantly black schools are still underfunded, understaffed, and students from these schools are clearly behind students of predominantly white and/or private schools.
  • Sean F. Reardon. “School Segregation and Racial Academic Achievement Gaps.” RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences 2, no. 5 (2016): 34-57. Accessed April 5, 2021. doi:10.7758/rsf.2016.2.5.03.
    • This article shows the pros and cons of de jure segregation especially in regards to academic environments. Reardon shows how black students tend to excel when surrounded by black peers, and the same goes for white students. However, when comparing a predominantly black school to the achievements to that of a predominantly white school, there is still a major gap. This is where the cons of segregation come into play as now minority schools are not prioritized and underfunded, making the achievement gap more of a socioeconomic disadvantage than it is a segregation/racial issue.
  • “The Persisting Myth That Black and White Schools Are Equally Funded.” The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, no. 22 (1998): 17-20. Accessed April 7, 2021. doi:10.2307/2998809.
    • This article goes more into depth about the economic disparities within the U.S. education system in regards to the funding of black/urban schools and white/suburban schools. I liked this article because I know it would be a good resource when pinpointing the main factors of the achievement gap: the main one being economic disparities. This article gives more statistics and analysis that will be useful when I need to elaborate on and further prove my argument.
  • Ladson-Billings, Gloria. “From the Achievement Gap to the Education Debt: Understanding Achievement in U.S. Schools.” Educational Researcher 35, no. 7 (2006): 3-12. Accessed April 7, 2021.
    • Ladson-Billings’ article will definitely be useful towards the end of my paper as she not only goes into detail about the prevalence of the achievement gap throughout history, but its effects on Black Americans well into adulthood. This is a useful resource to tie in my thoughts at the end as it will bring us to the present day, being that I myself and some of my classmates reading this are Black adults. She also breaks down types of debt and how they can start accumulating as early as secondary school.
  • Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton. “A Social Psychological Perspective on the Achievement Gap in Standardized Test Performance between White and Minority Students: Implications for Assessment.” The Journal of Negro Education 83, no. 4 (2014): 465-84. Accessed April 7, 2021. doi:10.7709/jnegroeducation.83.4.0465.
    • Denton gives another perspective to the achievement gap. This one is more from the perspective of Black students themselves as it is on a social and psychological level. This article will be useful in not only showing the effects of the achievement gap into adulthood but also how the psychological effect is a direct factor of said socioeconomic status.
  • Sui-Chu, Esther Ho, and J. Douglas Willms. “Effects of Parental Involvement on Eighth-Grade Achievement.” Sociology of Education69, no. 2 (1996): 126-41. Accessed April 7, 2021. doi:10.2307/2112802.
    • Though I am unsure if I will center an argument around this piece of evidence, it can still be useful as it hones in on the sociology aspect of socioeconomic disparity. Having family or parents involved in your education, and even extra curricular activities, through support, tutoring, mentorships, encouragement, etc. is more crucial for younger kids than it is us as college students because they are far more impressionable. Personally, my mother (who is a single mother) did not help me much with my academics as she is not an academic herself (and only finished community college) however she was very supportive of me in all of my endeavors, extra curricular activities, and payed for my tutors occasionally for math classes. Therefore, as a child school came naturally to me which it might not have for students whose parents were the opposite of mine. This difference of parental involvement could be useful throughout my essay.
  • Arthur L. Whaley, and La Tonya Noël. “Sociocultural Theories, Academic Achievement, and African American Adolescents in a Multicultural Context: A Review of the Cultural Compatibility Perspective.” The Journal of Negro Education 81, no. 1 (2012): 25-38. Accessed April 8, 2021. doi:10.7709/jnegroeducation.81.1.0025.
    • This article is also from The Journal of Negro Education and gives another sociological approach to the achievement gap. This article offers two main perspectives to academic underperforming Black students: cultural compatibility and culture incompatibility theories. Both perspectives analyze whether or not Black culture in itself is contributing to the performance of its students. Being that the articles that hone in on the sociological aspect of the achievement gap is from the same journal, I will most likely reference the Journal of Negro Education as a whole then exemplify my argument with quotations and analysis from the article.
  • Lee, Jung-Sook, and Natasha K. Bowen. “Parent Involvement, Cultural Capital, and the Achievement Gap among Elementary School Children.” American Educational Research Journal 43, no. 2 (2006): 193-218. Accessed April 8, 2021.
    • This article is interesting because it introduces a phrase for all of the ideas I had behind parent involvement with their school children: social capital. From what I gathered, social capital in regards to academia is the totality of involvement and resources a parent can offer their children. This will be useful in showing how because these parents have little to no social capital, so will their children which will inhibit their relationship with their education.
  • Rovai, Alfred P., Louis B. Gallien, and Mervyn J. Wighting. “Cultural and Interpersonal Factors Affecting African American Academic Performance in Higher Education: A Review and Synthesis of the Research Literature.” The Journal of Negro Education 74, no. 4 (2005): 359-70. Accessed April 8, 2021.
    • This is another article from The Journal of Negro Education, offering another sociological approach to teh achievement gap of Black and white students. However, this one is interesting as it offers more accountability to Black communities rather than solely blaming systemic inequalities. Things like “rap culture” and “gangsta” culture that we have put on a pedestal in the Black community, does not promote the lifestyle we would want for our children. The constant obsession Black people have with living like their favorite rapper/entertainer is now allowing these kids to prioritize an education and an honest living over fast and easy money and a flashy lifestyle. That concept usually is not ingrained into Black students until they are well into adulthood and it is too late.
  • Merolla, David M. “Oppositional Culture, Black Habitus and Education: A New Perspective on Racial Differences in Student Attitudes and Beliefs.” Race, Gender & Class 21, no. 1/2 (2014): 99-111. Accessed April 8, 2021.
    • This article elaborates on the points given in the previous citation. Merolla analyses how Black students/communities may underachieve in school simply because it is not “cool”. Oftentimes Black people are genuinely obsessed with maintaining social stature amongst their peers, in what most call “keeping up with the Joneses”. Students could be rejecting school as a means of social attainment as their peers are too. Here, we see more of the sociological perspective of the achievement gap and how we need to take more accountability as a community.
  • Monica R. Almond. “The Black Charter School Effect: Black Students in American Charter Schools.” The Journal of Negro Education 81, no. 4 (2012): 354-65. Accessed April 8, 2021. doi:10.7709/jnegroeducation.81.4.0354.
    • Though I am not sure if I will heavily utilize this article, it does offer an interesting perspective to the funding difference between charter and non charter schools and how Black students perform better within charter schools. This could offer a segway into the economic disparities as it shows that there are Black students who want to achieve despite cultural norms, but may not be able to because their school does not offer much.
  • Murphy, Joseph. “Closing Achievement Gaps: Lessons from the Last 15 Years.” The Phi Delta Kappan 91, no. 3 (2009): 8-12. Accessed April 8, 2021.
    • Murphy not only elaborates on what the achievement gap is and how it is perpetuated, but he offers solutions as well. He offers implications that the government spending should be more equalized or need based rather than based on SES. He also offers a host of other solutions that could be useful in tying in my argument and concluding my paper. He also shows subgroups of minority students like hispanics, asians, etc. in comparison to white students rather than just comparing African Americans and white Americans.
  • Penner, Emily K., Jane Rochmes, Jing Liu, Sabrina M. Solanki, and Susanna Loeb. “Differing Views of Equity: How Prospective Educators Perceive Their Role in Closing Achievement Gaps.” RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences 5, no. 3 (2019): 103-27. Accessed April 8, 2021. doi:10.7758/rsf.2019.5.3.06.
    • Penner,  et al. article sparked my interest the most as it shifted some accountability of the academic achievement gap to educators themselves. They hosted a series of interviews, which I believe were mock interviews, with prospective educators to see their viewpoints held on the evident achievement gap in that area. The results were interesting, but not surprising, as only Black applicants seemed to want to dedicate their position to closing the gap, that is due to systemic inequities. While white applicants did not show much commitment to closing the gap as they were not as aware of system inequities in the education system.
  • Ramirez, Al, and Dick Carpenter. “Challenging Assumptions about the Achievement Gap: Part Two: The Matter of Dropouts.” The Phi Delta Kappan 90, no. 9 (2009): 656-59. Accessed April 8, 2021.
    • This article also sparked my interest a lot as it offers responses to any challenges about the reasons and effects of the achievement gap. For example, some might say the reasonings for the achievement gap are false because a lot of these same students mentioned do not finish school in the first place, or “drop out”. However, the many factors that could lead a student to drop out can be used to combat such a challenge.
  • “MINDSETS: HOW TO MOTIVATE STUDENTS (AND YOURSELF).” Educational Horizons 91, no. 2 (2012): 16-21. Accessed April 8, 2021.
    • This article could also help me close out my paper as it offers more solutions in the form of self motivation and motivation of others. This especially pertains to educators that have students who may slack off or are purposely deviant because they may be acting out due to internal struggles. This shows how we can be more responsible as a community, and how educators can take accountability for the unmotivated students by altering their mindsets in a positive manner daily.

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