Appraisal Literature

Once you have selected a PICOT question discuss your strategies for conducting a systematic search/review of the literature in order to answer your question. Explain how you will critically appraise the literature you have selected to determine the best evidence for this assignment.

Note: Selected PICOT question: Primary care Provider’s adherence to treatment guidelines for the management of (type II Diabetes or Disease) in a (rural or type ) clinic

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Sample Answer


Appraisal Literature

Performing a systematic review of relevant literature is crucial in answering a PICOT question. To adequately answer my question, I will start by performing an inclusion and exclusion criteria to ensure that I only select articles that cover the issue of adherence of primary care providers to the guidelines for treating and managing type II diabetes. According to Jahan, Naveed, Zeshan and Tahir (2016) and Tawfik et al. (2019), determining the inclusion and exclusion criteria gives the reviewer a foundation on which they can make valid and reliable conclusions about the issue under research. Besides, this step is useful in minimizing bias in the study.

After selecting all relevant sources of literature, I will move to the next step of assessing bias so as to ensure that the selected articles provide reliable and valid information related to my PICOT question. Notably, biases affect the quality of a study since they allow for the provision of misguiding information (Jahal et al., 2016; Tawfik et al., 2019). I will particularly carry out an extensive search of the references included in selected articles with the goal of assessing whether they contain the information listed in my selected articles.

To establish the best evidence for my selected topic, I will critically appraise all literature sources selected for this study using a few steps as follows. I will begin my critical appraisal by carrying out an overview of all sections of the paper to ensure that none of the parts is missing. In particular, I will check the journal containing the article so as to ensure that it is peer-reviewed. An article that has undergone the peer review process is a clear indication that it is of high quality and thus provides valid and reliable information (Al-Jundi & Sakka, 2017). I will also check the year of publication to ensure that it is recent. Furthermore, I will assess the research methods used in the study so as to ensure that the study design, sample size and statistical analysis are in harmony. Notably, I will check whether the research questions are adequately addressed in the results and discussion sections. Lastly, I will check whether the statistical tests used were suitable for the data.


Al-Jundi, A., & Sakka, S. (2017). Critical appraisal of clinical research. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 11 (5), JE01-JE05. DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2017/26047.9942

Jahan, N., Naveed, S., Zeshan, M., & Tahir, M. A. (2016). How to conduct a systematic review: A narrative literature review. Cureus, 8 (11), 1-8. DOI:10.7759/cureus.864

Tawfik, G. M., Dila, K. A., Mohamed, M. Y., Tam, D. N., Kien, N. D., Ahmed, A. M., & Huy, N. T. (2019). A step by step guide for conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis with simulation data. Tropical Medicine and Health, 47 (46), 1-9.

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