Assignment: Ventricular Septal Defect

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Assignment: Ventricular Septal Defect

Assignment: Ventricular Septal Defect


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Tina is 5 years old, lives with her mother and grandmother. Mother works 2 jobs to help support her mother and her daughter. Tina is well cared for but is now admitted for a cardiac catheterization due to the Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) that was noted at birth.

Tina has an extensive history of respiratory infections and a nursing diagnosis of ‘activity intolerance’. Her mother relates that she does not allow her to play organized or competitive games due to her health. Tina smiles broadly when you come in the room to begin the pre-operative checklist. She starts to ask you a question when her grandmother tells her she must stay in the bed. “The nurse knows what she is doing and you will just be in the way.” Tina continues to smile at you but moves back to the bed.

  • You have identified some unique family dynamics, please relate.
  • What is the Erikson developmental level that Tina should exhibit? 
  • And where do you think she is?
  • How can you assist in the developmental growth?
  • What education can you give to Tina and her grandmother pre operatively?
  • What will she expect post operatively?

Tina is 5 years old, lives with her mother and grandmother



The first few days, weeks, or months of child’s existence are commonly marked by signs and symptoms of significant cardiac abnormalities.


Symptoms of Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) in baby include:


Failure to thrive due to poor eating


Breathing quickly or feeling out of breath


Easy to exhaustion


ventricular septal defect may go undetected by you and your doctor at birth. 
Symptoms may not develop until later in childhood, if at all, if the abnormality is minor. 
The signs and symptoms vary depending on the size of the hole and any other cardiac abnormalities that may be present.


If your doctor hears murmur while listening to your baby’s heart with stethoscope during routine visit, he or she may suspect heart abnormality. 
Ultrasound can sometimes detect VSD before the baby is born.


VSD may not be discovered until person reaches maturity. 
Shortness of breath or heart murmur detected by your doctor using stethoscope are examples of symptoms and indicators.


When should you see doctor?


If your baby or kid is experiencing any of the following symptoms, contact your doctor right once.


When eating or playing, he gets tired quickly.


Isn’t gaining weight problem?


When eating or sobbing, he or she becomes out of breath.


Breathes quickly or quickly out of breath


If you experience any of the following symptoms, contact your doctor right once.


When you exert yourself or lie down, you may have shortness of breath.


Heartbeats that are fast or irregular


Weakness or exhaustion


Request Consultation at Mayo Clinic




Problems early in the heart’s development produce congenital cardiac abnormalities, but there’s often no definite cause. 
Environmental and genetic factors may both play role. 
VSDs can occur on their own or in conjunction with other congenital cardiac abnormalities.


ventricular septal defect arises when the muscle wall dividing the left and right sides of the heart (septum) fails to properly form between the lower chambers of the heart during fetal development (ventricles).


The right side of the heart normally pumps oxygen-depleted blood to the lungs, while the left side pumps oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body. 
VSD causes higher blood pressure and increased blood flow in the pulmonary arteries by allowing oxygenated blood to mix with deoxygenated blood. 
As result, the heart and lungs have to work harder.


VSDs come in variety of diameters and can be found in number of places in the wall between the ventricles. 
One or more VSDs are possible.


VSDs can also develop later in life, frequently as result of heart attack or as side effect of certain heart surgeries.


Factors that are at risk


Ventricular septal abnormalities can run in families and can occur in conjunction with other genetic conditions like Down syndrome. 
genetic counselor can address the chance of your next child having heart problem if you already have child with one.




little ventricular septal defect might never create any issues. 
Large or medium flaws can result in variety of problems, ranging from minor to life-threatening. 
Many issues can be avoided with treatment.


Complications can include the following:


Heart failure is serious condition. 
The heart works harder in heart with medium or large VSD, and the lungs receive too much blood. 
Heart failure can occur if not treated.


Hypertension of the lungs. 
High blood pressure in the lung arteries (pulmonary hypertension) is caused by increased blood flow to the lungs as result of the VSD, which can irreversibly damage them. 
Blood flow through the hole may be reversed as result of this problem (Eisenmenger syndrome).


This type of heart infection is rare problem.


Other issues with the heart. 
Abnormal cardiac rhythms and valve issues are among them.




In most circumstances, there is little you can do to avoid having child with ventricular septal defect. 
However, it is critical to take every precaution to ensure healthy pregnancy. 
Here are the fundamentals:


Get prenatal treatment as soon as you find out you’re expecting. 
Before you get pregnant, talk to your doctor about your health and any lifestyle adjustments that your doctor may suggest for safe pregnancy. 
Also, make sure to discuss any medications you’re taking with your doctor.


Consume well-balanced diet. 
Take folic acid-containing vitamin supplement.


Exercise on regular basis. 
Consult your doctor to come up with an exercise regimen that is good for you.


Risques should be avoided. 
Harmful substances such as alcohol, cigarettes, and illegal drugs are among them.


Infections should be avoided. 
Before you get pregnant, make sure you’re up to date on all of your vaccines. 
developing fetus can be harmed by certain types of illnesses.


Maintain diabetes control. 
If you have diabetes, check with your doctor to make sure it’s under control before you start trying to conceive.
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