Book link: http://pinkmonkey.com/dl/library1/slavery.pdf
Booker T. Washington, Up From slavery. Use the whole book to write your paper.
1. Write a minimum of 7 full pages (5 pages for Part One and 2 Pages for Part Two). (Maximum limit
is 9 pages).
2. Double-space it. 10 or 12 font size.
3. Use one inch margin space on all four sides.
4. You must upload your paper on to Canvas. It should be a pdf file. Note: ONLY PDF Files.
5. DO NOT USE QUOTES FROM THE BOOK. WRITE IN YOUR OWN WORDS. POINTS WILL
BE DEDUCTED IF YOU DIRECTLY QUOTE FROM THE BOOK.
7. Organize your paper in your own style.
8. Use a spell-checker to check spellings. Points will be deducted for spelling errors.
9. I will grade your paper on your understanding of the book, demonstration of your reading through
the use of multiple details and examples from the book, and your discussion.
10. Do not hesitate to consult me while you are writing the paper.
11. Remember that this is a history paper. Hence place it in a historical context.
12. I will NOT accept late submission of paper.
13. Do not email me the paper, submit it in CDs, or post it on your web site.
14. I WILL REGARD COPYING FROM CLIFF OR SPARKS NOTES AND INTERNET AS
CHEATING (PLAGIARISM). DO NOT USE ANY OUTSIDE SOURCE (Books or internet). It will
result in a F grade for the paper.
(100 Points) Your paper should have two parts. You should have both parts in one paper.
Part One: (5 pages minimum)
Write your paper in an essay style. Critically analyze and discuss the life and legacy of Booker T. Washington as a leader of blacks in the late 19th and early 20th century. Include Washington’s experiences as a slave child, his views on white slave masters and mistresses and his views on whites soon after the Civil War when slavery was abolished. Discuss his desires and ambitions as a young man and how he achieved them. Include in your discussion his views on relations between whites and blacks. In that context in addition to discussing his work and ideas in Tuskegee, discuss his significant speeches chief among them being the Atlanta Speech. Write also about his views on what he considered to be the best ways for blacks to improve their lives in the years following the Civil War.
Part Two: (2 pages minimum)
Are Booker T. Washington’s ideas about education relevant for today? Discuss this in relationship to the article; “Beyond One-Size-Fits-All College Dreams”. Read the article at the following site.
Tips on writing the Booker T. Washington Paper.
When you write your paper keep these tips in mind:
1. You will be graded on the material and details you bring in from chapters/article to answer the questions I have asked.
2. Avoid writing a summary of the book.
3. Write both Part 1 and Part II in the same paper.
4. You must meet the minimum page requirement, margin and double-spacing requirements. Points will be deducted if you don’t meet these requirements.
5. You must not exceed the maximum pages requirement.
6. Don’t use quotes.
7. No need to provide references and citations as these are not research papers.
8. Write in simple sentences using simple language.
9. Do not break down your paper into short answers or provide several answers with sub-headers/headings.
10. Write in paragraphs.
11. There is no formal format or style to follow. This is a question and answer paper. Write your paper as an answer to the questions I have asked.
12. Using outside materials will not give you any extra credit.
Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery
Booker T. Washington is recognized as one of the most influential Americans in history due to his impact on education and his promotion of the needs of the African American community in the US. Born into slavery, he overcame many challenges to become a prominent educator and author. One of his most significant works is the book Up From Slavery. In the book, Washington describes his experiences from being born into a slave family, his pursuit of education, the establishment of Tuskegee Institute, and his work in uplifting the African American community. In-depth exploration of Up From Slavery reveals Washington’s influence in promoting education among Blacks and the promotion of amicable relations between Blacks and whites.
In the first two chapters of Up from Slavery, Booker T. Washington relays his childhood years. Firstly, he notes that he was born a slave on a plantation located in Franklin County, Virginia but without a record of his specific place of date of birth. His childhood was spent in desolate and miserable surroundings in a family of slaves. Washington lacks knowledge of his ancestry and only knew that his father was a white man from a nearby plantation. His family worked on a plantation and his mother acted as the plantation cook. Washington’s family lived in a deplorable hood cabin which little protection from the elements.
During his childhood, Washington grew up without any education since none was available for black children during that time. Instead, Washington was involved in various forms of labor in the plantation such as cleaning, carrying items, and running errands. He viewed his slave masters as more benevolent and less cruel than other slave masters but was still cognizant of the fact that the condition of slavery denied him and his family a better quality of life. For instance, Washington had to scrape by for food and also endure a lack of appropriate clothing.
During his childhood, Washington keenly observed the relationship between slaves and their masters. The slaves showed the utmost devotion to their masters at all times. He gives an example of the happenings during the Civil War when some young masters fought for the south. The slaves took it upon themselves to protect the homes and plantations. The slaves also cared for their masters who had been wounded in the war.
After the Civil War, slaves attained their freedom under the Emancipation Proclamation. Gaining freedom was a momentous and joyous occasion for the newly freed slaves. However, the mood changed among blacks who now had to grapple with their limited means and opportunities. While Washington viewed slavery as cruelty, he perceived that at the end of slavery, Blacks in America were in a favorable economic, intellectual and religious position. As such, he harbored no ill feelings towards the whites who had enslaved Blacks. Washington also perceived that immediately after the abolition of slavery, the former slave owners and the freed slaves still shared a mutual dependence.
Desires and Ambitions
Since his young years, one of Washington’s greatest desires and ambitions was to obtain an education. In the book, he indicates that since the first time he saw children learning, he developed an intense longing to get an education. His desire at a young age was that he get a sufficient education that would have granted him the skills to read common books and newspapers. Washington’s academic development started when his mother gave him a spelling book. Later, he would take up lessons with an educated black man who had traveled south from Ohio. Washington’s desire to get an education saw him endure considerable tribulations as he journeyed to Hampton, Virginia. He received admission to the Hampton Institute where he undertook his education and managed to pay fees by working as a janitor. He graduated from the Hampton Institute and continued to advance his education. In this way, Washington achieved his ambition of getting an education and cultivating sufficient literacy.
As a young man, Washington had the ambition to bring education to the disadvantaged Black community. As Washington pursued education, he realized that there was a great hunger for education among Blacks, both young and old. He noted that Blacks grappled with the lack of educators in their communities as well as poverty which precluded a large proportion of the Black population from education. The desire to help uplift the community through education was heightened when he got an opportunity to teach children at Malden. As such, Washington vowed that he would help to uplift the people by bringing education to the community at home. Washington fulfilled this ambition by founding the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute. He oversaw the expansion of the institute and supervised the construction of buildings at the school. Through the Tuskegee Institute, Washington provided a platform for students to get an education and also acquire a range of skills. In this way, Washington laid a strong foundation for the education of the Black population in the South.
Views on Relations between Blacks and Whites
In the book, Washington offers a recounting of his life experiences which had helped to shape his views on the relations between Blacks and whites in the US. From a young age, Washington recognized the necessity of cooperation between Blacks and whites despite the fraught relationship that had grown due to the fact of slavery. He posited that despite the unpleasant past, Blacks needed to cultivate amicable relations with whites. According to Washington, cooperation between Blacks and whites would not only bring social order but also contribute to the economic development of the Black population. Washington acknowledged that there were feelings of resentment from Blacks towards whites over slavery and the reality of racism and discrimination in the US but called for Blacks to pursue friendly relations with whites as an important step towards social progress. Washington opposed extremist and radical measures in the agitation for social justice and instead proposed cooperation among the races.
Views on How Blacks Could Improve Their Lives
The experiences of Washington in childhood as a slave, his pursuit of education, and his work as an educator formed the foundation of his thoughts on how Blacks in the US could improve their lives. Firstly, Washington emphasized the necessity of education in uplifting the lives of Blacks. He speaks favorably of education as a tool for improving the knowledge and skills of Blacks which would translate to socioeconomic progress. Washington argued that Blacks could uplift themselves through labor across various sectors from agriculture to industry. Washington held the view that the progress of Blacks was tied to their capacity to cooperate with their white neighbors. He also urged Blacks to pay attention to the need for the acquisition of property.
The Atlanta Speech
Washington was a skilled orator and throughout his life, he gave many significant speeches that explores a wide range of issues that were critical to the Black community. One of his most significant speeches was the one he gave at the opening 1895 Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta. In the Atlanta Exposition speech, Washington explores socio-economic issues and the relationships between Blacks and whites.
Firstly, Washington noted the demographic strength of Blacks in the American South by indicating that Blacks comprised a third of the population in the region. As such, he argued that the social and economic success of the region could only be attained if the Black population in the South would be included in the progress. In this way, Washington highlighted the inescapable fact of the racial diversity in the South and called for the inclusion of Blacks whose interests had until that point been disregarded. He expressed the view that the successes or failures of the South would be determined by how effectively the society managed to uplift the conditions of Blacks. Through this line of thought, Washington effectively made the point that all people regardless of their race had a shared responsibility and a significant role in the attainment of societal and economic progress.
In the Atlanta speech, Washington examined the relations between the Black and white populations of the South. Firstly, Washington urged Blacks to recognize the benefits that they stood to gain by cultivating friendly relations with their white neighbors. He called for interracial collaboration in the professions, mechanics, agriculture, and commerce. Washington called for cooperation by underscoring that Blacks living in the South had been accorded more opportunities for success in commerce than anywhere else in the country. In the speech, Washington highlighted how Blacks had contributed to the progress of the country through their labor in the fields of agriculture, mining, and construction. He urged the white population to recognize that Blacks had shown devotion and trustworthiness across centuries of existence in the US. Washington then argued that through cooperation, whites could be assured of the continued devotion of Blacks in the future. Washington emphasized that cooperation between Blacks and whites would bring greater cohesion that would bring considerable progress in the dimensions of commerce, industry, religion, and civil life.
Up From Slavery offers the reader a vantage point for exploring the experiences of slaves in the US and the considerable challenges that the black population faced after the Emancipation Proclamation. Washington managed to overcome considerable obstacles to achieve his dream of gaining an education then later establishing the Tuskegee Institute to promote education for the disadvantaged Blacks. From his life experiences and his speeches, Washington promoted cooperation between Blacks and whites to achieve social, economic, and intellectual progress. Therefore, Up From Slavery is an informative reading on the African American experience during slavery and after the Emancipation Proclamation.
Booker T. Washington’s Views on Education and their Relevance Today
Washington is one of the most prominent educators in the history of the US mainly because of his outsized impact in promoting the education of people of color in the US. During his younger years, Washington overcame considerable odds to obtain an education. Later, he became an educator himself, teaching the maligned and disadvantaged in society. Washington elevated the Tuskegee Institute into a premier institution for providing education to the Black population. He believed that institutions such as the Tuskegee Institute would provide the knowledge and skills that Blacks needed to attain economic progress in the challenging social and economic setup in the US.
The article “Beyond One-Size-Fits-All College Dreams” explores the challenges facing young people in their pursuit of higher education. The article highlights the fallacy among college students that a bachelor’s degree is the key to the attainment of career success. The focus on bachelor’s degree programs has come to the detriment of many students who are unlikely to succeed under such programs which have a low graduation rate. As such, the idealization of the bachelor’s degree relegates the importance of associate degrees and career-focused certificates that are a viable and reliable route to satisfying careers. Secondly, the authors argue that increased college access has failed to address existing problems that hinder academic success for a significant proportion of students. The situation is worsened by the fact that high school students making the leap from high school to college lack sufficient information to aid their decision-making. Thirdly, the authors decry the lack of information about the detrimental impacts of remediation.
Washington’s ideas about education are still highly relevant in the modern education landscape. Firstly, his views are relevant today in so far as the problem of idealization of the bachelor’s degree. As noted in the article, there is a perception among young learners that the key to career success and high-income jobs are bachelor’s degrees. However, the ideas championed by Washington would oppose this view by noting that allowing students an education that builds their skills and capitalizes on their strengths should be the benchmark. Washington viewed that students should be equipped with the practical skills and knowledge that they needed to contribute positively to society. Based on this idea, it means that education, as it is offered today, should shift from the over-exaltation of the bachelor’s degree and instead focus on the provision of education that builds the skills and capabilities of students.
After highlighting the challenges that exist in higher education, the article proposes three solutions which are ensuring that students have adequate information about their options, reducing the focus on bachelor’s degrees, and informing students on their most suitable routes to success. Washington shares similar views on what a good education should be. Washington promoted the idea that education must not only focus on the brain but also on the person as a whole. He urged for more hand training in the sense that students in higher learning should be provided training that would enable them to be industrious. Just as the article proposes, Washington also relayed the view that education institutions should offer honest assessments of the students’ abilities and provide appropriate guidance. Therefore, the modern education landscape can benefit from Washington’s ideas by providing students with timely guidance and focusing on education paths such as associate degrees that allow students to progress to satisfying careers.
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