Case Study: Fluid and Electrolyte/Acid-Base Essay

Case Study: Fluid and Electrolyte/Acid-Base Essay

Question 1

When tests are carried out, the results of the pyloric stenosis are metabolic alkalosis, hypochloremia, dehydration, and hypokalemia. Loss of gastric fluid results in a significant reduction in the volumes of chloride, acid (H+), sodium, and potassium, which consequently causes metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemic, and hypochloremic (Murray, 2019).In response, the body’s kidney strives to maintain the normal body alkalinity (pH) by removing extra HCO3. The kidneys, in attempting to conserve sodium instead of hydrogen ions, can result in paradoxical aciduria.

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Question 2

There is excess loss of water and electrolytes from the body due to constant vomiting. Electrolytes are vital in normal body functions, including magnesium, calcium, bicarbonates, potassium, chloride ions, and sodium. Loss of water from the body through vomiting also causes an imbalance of electrolytes (Mendal,2019). The excretion of gastric acid results in the loss of hydrogen and chloride ions, causing metabolic alkalosis and hypochloremic. The two conditions result in increased blood pH.

Question 3

When a baby vomits, they will rapidly lose more body fluids than when they are not sick. The excessive loss of water and other body fluids through vomiting leads to dehydration (Murray, 2019). There are many signs of dehydration in babies, which include dry lips, constipation, concentrated urine, which is usually of different colors, lack of tears when the baby is crying, and fewer diapers in a day.

Question 4

The respiratory system occasionally gets rid of carbon dioxide at a rate that is the same as its creation by the body cells. It, therefore, means that the normal condition of blood equal to PCO2 of 35 to 45mm Hg should be maintained ( Chamberlilain University LLC, 2021). Imbalanced respiration leads to low amounts of carbon dioxide removed from the body and more content of it retained in the blood, which in the long run increases blood pH.


Chamberlain University LLC. (2021). Week 5 Concepts: Integrated Control of Acid-Base

Mandal,Ananya.(2019). Vomiting Complications.News-Medical.

Murray, D. (2019). The Signs, Causes, Treatment, and prevention of Infant Dehydration.Verywell Family. HTTPS://


A 4-week-old has been vomiting repeatedly for the past several days. It is getting worse. Today it occurs immediately after nursing and is so forceful it shoots across the room! He appears ravenously hungry, and drinks vigorously, but immediately vomits again.

Physical Exam:
Infant has evidence of dehydration. On abdominal exam there is a small, firm, “lump” that can be felt in the upper abdomen.

An abdominal ultrasound shows thickening of the pylorus

Pyloric stenosis

Consider the effect that repeated vomiting would have on the electrolytes of the body.

He will need to receive IV fluids to correct his dehydration and electrolyte imbalances before heading to surgery to relieve the obstruction.

Answer the following questions based on the scenario and article above and save your responses in a Microsoft Word document. Provide a scholarly resource in APA format to support your answers.

1. Understanding that HCl is produced in the stomach and that he has been vomiting his stomach contents, predict the acid/base imbalance that repeated vomiting will cause.
2. Predict the effect on blood chloride level from repeated vomiting?
“Normal saline” is often used to treat dehydration. What does it mean for the saline to be “normal”?
3. Research to discover signs or symptoms of dehydration. List 3.
4. Explain how an alteration in respiratory rate can compensate for an acid- base imbalance.

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