Case Study: Urinary System Essay

Case Study: Urinary System Essay

Urinary system

passage of urine into the urethral meatus from the collecting duct.

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Papillary duct → duct of Bellini → renal calyces → ureter → vesica → urethra → urethral meatus (Hickling et al., 2015).

The normal organ that is most likely to obstruct the male urinary outflow is the prostate.

This is a gland about the size of a walnut that is found in the pelvis underneath the bladder but fore to the rectum. The urethra drains urine from the bladder and passes directly through the prostate. The primary job of the prostate is to secrete a fluid that carries and nourishes sperm. The prostate gland can swell and clog the urethra in older men, leading to urinary issues. When the prostate grows too large, it can squeeze the urethra and cause urine to back up in the bladder. This could be due to benign prostate hypertrophy or prostatitis if the prostate gets infected (Tsunemori & Sugimoto, 2021).


Examination of the prostate based on the anatomic location.

A blood test for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or a digital rectal exam (DRE) can both be used to check the prostate. A gloved, lubricated finger is inserted into the rectum during DRE in order to feel the prostate through the rectum’s wall. The prostate should have a smooth, strong, and homogeneous shape (Hickling et al., 2015). An infection in the prostate can cause it to feel irregular, rigid, or lumpy.

The reason that makes women more likely to acquire urinary tract infections compared to men.

Considering the feminine anatomy, particularly the urethra, is the primary reason for their susceptibility to infection. The urethra is a gateway for bacteria to enter the urinary system. Women often have a shorter urethra than men do. The average length of a male urethra is 6 inches, but a female urethra is approximately 1 to 2 inches (Chanmugam & Scalabrini, 2016). This is essential while handling germs. It is simpler for germs to infect the female urinary system because the female urethra meatus—the aperture of the urethra where urine escapes—is lower than the male urethra meatus.

The consequences of the inability to empty the bladder.

Urine will accumulate in the bladder if it is not evacuated and finally spill over. This can result in incontinence, defined as the involuntary loss of control over urination. In extreme circumstances, the bladder is capable of rupturing, which is a situation that requires immediate medical attention. According to Tsunemori & Sugimoto (2021), this pressure can cause damage to the kidneys, and in some people, it can even lead to chronic renal disease and, ultimately, kidney failure. Kidney failure consequently can result in high blood pressure, edema in the legs, and ultimately failure of the heart.


Hickling, D. R., Sun, T.-T., & Wu, X.-R. (2015, August). Anatomy and physiology of the urinary tract: Relation to host defense and Microbial Infection. Microbiology spectrum. Retrieved November 17, 2022, from

Tsunemori, H., & Sugimoto, M. (2021). Effects of inflammatory prostatitis on the development and progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia: A literature review. International Journal of Urology, 28(11), 1086–1092.

Chanmugam, A. S., & Scalabrini, G. (2016). Urinary tract infections in women. Oxford Medicine Online.



Mr. P is 77 yrs old and is having urinary problems. He urinates more frequently than he did when he was younger, but he still can’t seem to fully empty his bladder. He has to get up several times at night to use the bathroom, and it is exhausting him!
Physical exam: consider what exam would be helpful in determining his diagnosis
Labs: urinalysis is normal
Assessment: Urinary obstruction due to ______?


Answer the following questions based on the scenario and article above and save your responses in a Microsoft Word document. Provide a scholarly resource in APA format to support your answers.

1. Trace the flow of urine from the collecting duct to the urethral meatus.
2. Based on your knowledge of the male urinary tract, what normal organ is most likely obstructing the urinary outflow?
3. Based on the anatomic location of this structure, how can this structure be examined?
4. Based on your knowledge of anatomical differences, why are women more likely than men to get urinary tract infections?
5. Predict the consequences of the inability to empty the bladder.

Minimum of 1 scholarly source

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