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week 1 discussion

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Week 1 Discussion

1. What are five chronic disease conditions that might be positively influenced by participation in regular physical activity? Describe and discuss TWO.

As described in our textbook, chronic diseases refer to those conditions and illness which can occur or develop over a relatively long period of time, it can take months to years, and are prolonged, may be preventable, but are rarely completely cured (Kohl & Murray, 2012). And the five chronic disease conditions that might be positively influenced by participation in regular physical activity are diabetes mellitus, cancer, heart disease, Pulmonary disease, and osteoporosis (Kohl & Murray, 2012). Booth, Roberts, and Laye (2012) stated that increased physical activity helps prevent weight gain that are associated with aging and can strengthen muscles and bones. According to a research that they conducted, people who are less active are two times at risk of gaining weight compared to those that are more active. Booths and his colleagues stated that exercising at least 30 min. a day for 5 days is critical to sustaining good health. According to the Journal of American Heart Association (JAHA, 2018), physical activity is a protective and independent factor that is associated with lowering cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. JAHA stated that inactivity accounts for 12.2% of the population attributable risk factor for myocardial infarction or heart attack and 6% of coronary heart disease cases. They stated that regular physical activity seems to be effective in the primary prevention of coronary artery diseases (CAD), and once symptomatic CAD has developed, regular exercise training is a potent strategy to increase the threshold of angina-free activity levels in stable disease conditions. JAHA also indicated that has been shown to induce reverse cardiac remodeling in patients with heart failures with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction.

Physical inactivity has also been associated with the risk of especially breast cancer. According to Monninkhof, Vlems, Van der Tweel, Schuit, Voskuil, and Van Leeuwen (2007), physical activity may prevent the development of breast cancer by reducing exposure to insulin and insulin-like growth factors, by lowering estrogen and androgen (exposure to sex steroid hormones), by preventing overweight and obesity, which is associated with development of insulin resistance, and by reducing inflammation and improving immune system function. Their research indicated that, those that participate in regular physical activity might reduce the circulating levels of sex hormones, and this can reduce breast cancer risk by delaying the onset of menarche (the first occurrence of menstruation) in childhood and adulthood, since women with early onset of menarche and late menopause are at an increased risk of getting breast cancer.

 2. What are the pros and cons of collecting self-report data (daily logs, interviews, questionnaires) about physical activity?

Based on our textbook (Kohl & Murray, 2012), collecting of self-report data helps investigators understand the behavior pattern or the day-to-day variability of people in a defined period, and helps understand the context and type of physical activity they engage in, as it is in using diaries to record activities. Since self-reporting data such as interviews are conducted by professionals, they can probe the items that participants might not readily recall, which in turn enhances the overall accuracy of the measurement. Interviews can also be structured so that the context, as well as the intensity, duration, and frequency of the physical activity is reported. Questionnaire, another self-report data is a cost-effective way of obtaining substantial amount of physical activity data on a large group of people and track them over time.can be written and implemented in multiple languages and can be tailored for a specific population of interest or study. Some cons or problems of self-report data include recall bias. As in questionnaire, since it does not have the ability to accurately recall certain type activities, or they can influence the respondent answers to questions. Since there is an inability to probe respondents for more complete answers with questionnaire, it may result in many physical activities not being reported. Interviews can also be expensive and have a substantial burden on the participant, according to our textbook. Finally, the quality of the interviewer will determine the kind of response they elicit. A good interviewer will help the participant remember details, while an inconsistent interviewer will not get the same response.


-Kohl, H.W., & Murray, T.D (2012), Foundations of physical activity and public health. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

-Booth, F. W., Roberts, C. K., & Laye, M. J. (2012), Lack of exercise is a major cause of chronic diseases. Comprehensive Physiology, 2(2), 1143–1211. doi:10.1002/cphy.c110025

-Journal of American Heart Association (2018), Physical Activity in the Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Artery Disease. Retrieved July 9, 2019, from

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Juan Ibarra

Week 1 Discussion

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Five chronic disease that ca be highly influenced by regular physical activity are diabetes mellitus, cancer, heart disease, pulmonary disease, and osteoporosis. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Six in ten adults in the US have a chronic disease and four in ten adults have two or more”. Chronic diseases are what drive our nation’s health care cost by 3.8 Trillion in an annual cost. According to the textbook, collecting self-reporting data its can be beneficial with collection of day-today activities since people will be tracking up to date data. If data is collected by professional, there are chances people won’t recall accurate data. Also self-report data can usually be cost-effective and requires minimum supervision in a large group of people to track over time. Questionnaires can be implemented to be easy based on languages or peoples prefer way of self-reporting. Some negative aspects of self-reporting data can be honesty, people might make a more socially acceptable answer rather than being truthful and accurate. Some people might also struggle measuring themselves, sometimes they might not understand the concept behind on how to measure themselves accurately to be able to provide accurate data. In some points, self-reported answers can also be exaggerated since respondents may be embarrassed to reveal real details. All these negatives can truly affect data accuracy and therefore data is not 100% real. Self-reporting data can truly have and all this based on people. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, April 28). About Chronic Diseases. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.,in%20annual%20health%20care%20costs.

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