DHA Prospectus Form

DHA Prospectus Form

Students | Complete your doctoral prospectus within this form. Write your responses in the white spaces using a scholarly tone and include in-text citations and APA reference entries where appropriate. You can click on underlined terms and headings for descriptions, resource links, and examples located in the Appendix. For additional prospectus information and resources, refer to the Doctoral Research Coach. Complete the Research Design Alignment Table within this form using the information from earlier sections and self-assess your research design alignment. Submit this completed form into MyDR for formal evaluation and feedback when your committee chair indicates that you are ready to do so.

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Student’s Name | Student ID | Click or tap here to enter text.

Program and Specialization* | DHA Submission Date | 6/20/2021

*Remember that your study focus must be within the realm of your program and specialization area.

Evaluators Only | Complete this section and provide feedback on responses and rubric scores in the form where noted.

Committee Chairperson Name: Click or tap here to enter text. Overall Assessment: Choose score.

Second Committee Member Name: Click or tap here to enter text. Overall Assessment: Choose score.

PhD Program Director: Click or tap here to enter text. Overall Assessment: Choose score.

Title

In 12 words or less, what is the working title for this study? Include the topic, variables and relationship between them, and the most critical key words.

Chronic Diseases and Healthcare Cost

Supporting Literature

The first step in developing your prospectus is to search the literature related to the general area related to healthcare administration you want to investigate (see social problem below). In your review of recent, empirical literature, what keywords did you search and in what databases?

The keywords and databases searched included Healthcare costs, healthcare prices in the US, Healthcare costs for chronic diseases in the US.

Search Log

Database

Search Terms

Results

Notes

Google Scholar

Healthcare costs

2,700,000

The search results were too many. Needs narrowing of search terms

Google Scholar

Healthcare prices in the US

307,000

Research results were too many

Google scholar

Healthcare costs for chronic diseases

1,220,000

Research results were too many. Need to narrow search terms

Provide at maximum of 10 brief summaries of recent, scholarly (peer-reviewed) articles and empirical literature. The summaries should include: a) 3 – 5 brief summaries within the last 5 years that justify a current and relevant problem in your discipline or professional field; b) article(s) that support your theoretical/conceptual framework; c) article that supports your Nature of the Study section; d) additional articles that support that your problem is current and relevant to your discipline or professional field for a total of 10 brief summaries.

Include the complete, APA reference entry and (a) an in-text citation; (b) what was studied; (c) what was found; and (d) why this research is important in relation to your study. This evidence provides the justification for your research problem.

HSO Justification Literature

(minimum of 3 sources within last 5 years justifying an HSO operational, administrative or management problem)

Chang et al. (2018) conducted a study to determine the relationship between healthcare costs and high-risk prescriptions using a cohort study design. The study was done within two years. The age of participants in the cohort study ranged between 18 to 64 years. A high-risk prescription is one given by medical professionals, and there is evidence of significant risk or harm to patients and thus needs to be avoided or closely monitored. While research has explicitly focused on the costs of chronic diseases, the authors also focus on a topic of great importance. Some of the high-risk prescriptions include antimicrobials and chemotherapy agents. The study’s findings showed that individuals with a high risk of opioid use incurred more healthcare costs than their counterparts in the study. Further, the findings revealed a significant relationship between high-risk prescription and utilization. Individuals with high-risk medications had higher utilization compared to those with lower high-risk prescriptions. The results of the findings prove that patients with chronic diseases incur more costs compared to others because, within the study, the participants with opioid use for chronic conditions incurred more healthcare costs.

In another article by Papanicolas et al. (2018), the authors compare the healthcare expenditures between the United States and other developed countries. According to the report, compared to these countries, the US spends the highest gross domestic product on healthcare. However, while the US uses a lot of money to fund its healthcare systems, health indicators show that other developed countries are weighing above the US. For instance, when the life expectancy rates are compared, the US has an average life expectancy of 78.8 years against an average of 81.3 years for other developed countries. In 2016, the US pumped 17.8% of the GDP into healthcare against an average of 9.6% from eleven developed countries. The US lags behind these countries regarding the number of health insurances provided to its citizens. The findings from the survey done by the author show that, overall, healthcare prices in the US are higher. The high costs of healthcare in the US are partly due to the high salaries paid to the healthcare practitioners compared to those included in the study. Other factors contributing to high prices in the United States are the high cost of medical supplies and administrative costs. The article ascertains the fact that accessing healthcare in the US is very expensive. For those with chronic diseases, the costs become so high to manage.

In another study, Chapel et al. (2017) compared the annual healthcare costs for patients with non-communicable chronic diseases in the United States. The study participants were aged between 18-64 years. The study focused on cost estimates for diabetes, chronic pulmonary diseases, cancer, heart failures, and hypertension. From the results, the patients with diabetes condition spent an average of 3144 US dollars per individual on treatment annually. The patients with hypertension paid an average of 687 US dollars annually, while beneficiaries with heart failures paid 40604 US dollars on healthcare. The beneficiaries with cancer conditions paid an average of 37789 US dollars during the study period that lasted for six months. From these results, it is evident that patients suffering from heart failure and cancer pay a lot of money to finance their healthcare. Therefore, treating chronic diseases in the US is highly expensive. The patients have to struggle to finance their healthcare needs. Due to an increase in treatment cost, some patients may develop other health disorders such as stress because of the burden of paying for their healthcare needs. The study by Chapel et al. (2017) attests that treating chronic diseases in the US is very expensive

Replace this text with your summaries.

HSO Problem Supporting Sources

(social problem, significance, or variables beyond justified HSO problem)

Garrison, L. P., & Towse, A. (2017). Value-based pricing and reimbursement in personalized healthcare: introduction to the basic health economics. Journal of personalized medicine, 7(3), 10.

In this literature article, the authors develop their conceptual understandings of value-based outcomes, pricing, and reimbursement in healthcare. In general, the whole idea presented by the publication is centered on cost-effectiveness in healthcare as an issue of concern in modern-day healthcare provisioning. The authors, therefore, delve into the aforementioned items of cost-effectiveness effects in healthcare through analysis of both meaning and relationship. The primary question explored in the article is the models to apply in personalize healthcare. The article proposes the answer to the probe as leveraging on technology and competitive innovation power to achieve long-term efficiency in health economics balance. According to the authors, innovation can be an effective tool to spread value throughout the health services stakeholders, including suppliers to payers who receive the services and products such as medication drugs. Thus, the cost-effectiveness in healthcare analysis proposed seeks to make the impression of health economics as a value transfer chain linking both the social and economic collective good for all.

Sarpatwari, A., LaPidus, A. K., & Kesselheim, A. S. (2020). Revisiting the National institutes of health fair pricing condition: promoting the affordability of drugs developed with government support. Ann Intern Med 172(5):348-350. https://doi.org/10.7326/M19-2576.

The article’s main focus is the cost of prescription drugs in the US that has been on a gradual rise for the last three decades. According to the authors, prescription drugs in the US have been the most significantly affected by increased prices amongst the healthcare services and products, recording over 100% increase on a decade-to-decade comparison. The cost of prescription drugs cannot be explained from an inflation standpoint nor some abnormal raw material price increases but rather just the monetization of healthcare products by drug-making companies. In the long run, prescription drugs have pushed up healthcare costs in the US, leading to government interventions, especially in the US senate. According to the article, the US policymakers have urged the national institutes of health to develop fair prescription drug prices better than interventions in 1989. The report builds up to the research on the rising cost of healthcare in the US.

Robinson, J. C., Brown, T. T., & Whaley, C. (2017). Reference pricing changes the ‘choice architecture ‘of health care for consumers. Health Affairs, 36(3), 524-530.

Reference pricing is a new innovative healthcare model for insurance provisioning pricing that has hit the market, allowing healthcare consumers to select low acuity and low-priced care. According to the authors, the model has been associated with high effectiveness in assuring quality health for many due to its accommodation of market shifts to low pricing and reduced costs of expenditures for healthcare. The authors further add that reference pricing could potentially stimulate more cost-reducing innovation and competition. While examining reference pricing as a lead model in the pricing reforms in healthcare, the authors explored previous articles to gain insights on its impacts on patient choice, provider prices, surgical complications, consumer cost-sharing, and employer spending. Reference pricing therefore not only provides standard coverage for many but also levels the field in healthcare for consumers by presenting a cost-effective payment option.

Replace this text with your summaries.

Framework Literature

(minimum of 1 source that aligns with the research variables)

Jamshed, S. (2014). Qualitative research method-interviewing and observation. Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy, 5(4), 87. https://doi.org/10.4103/0976-0105.141942

A research methodology is a map that guides a researcher towards certain objectives within the research. For this case, the study will achieve its objective through the use of qualitative research methodology. Qualitative research involves collection and analysis of non-numerical data

Nature of Study Literature Methods and Analysis

(minimum of 1 source for the methodology and type of analysis)

Jamshed, S. (2014). Qualitative research method-interviewing and observation. Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy, 5(4), 87. https://doi.org/10.4103/0976-0105.141942

A qualitative research shall be conducted. The qualitative research methods are most relevant for this research because it will provide the existing relationship between the variables of healthcare costs and chronic diseases.

Nature of Study Literature Dataset

(minimum of 1 source for the dataset)

Chapel, J. M., Ritchey, M. D., Zhang, D., & Wang, G. (2017). Prevalence and medical costs of chronic diseases among adult Medicaid beneficiaries. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 53(6), S143-S154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2017.07.019

The dataset that will be applicable in the study include healthcare costs for treating different diseases and chronic diseases such as cancer.

Rubric Standard | Justified > Is evidence presented that this problem is significant to the discipline and/or professional field?

Problem

What was the social problem and the healthcare administration problem that prompted you to search the literature to find out more? Write in complete sentences using a scholarly tone.

The cost of healthcare in the US, even when compared to its immediate neighbors like Canada, has traditionally been high, and this problem has proceeded to affect Americans with chronic diseases such as cancer and heart failures as they are forced to pay far more to receive the required treatment.

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