Discussion: Decision Making When Treating Psychological Disorders

Pharmacology for Psychological Disorders

How does an advanced practice nurse determine the best treatment option or pharmacotherapeutic to recommend for patients with psychological disorders?

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Much like assessing or recommending pharmacotherapeutics for other conditions or disorders, as an advanced practice nurse, you may encounter a patient who presents with a psychological disorder. Understanding the guiding principles related to treating patients with psychological disorders as well as the effects of pharmacotherapeutics on a patient’s overall health and well-being is critical for the safe and effective delivery of care.

This week, you examine types of drugs prescribed to patients with psychological disorders. You also examine potential impacts of pharmacotherapeutics used to treat psychological disorders on a patient’s pathophysiology.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate patients for treatment of psychological disorders
  • Analyze decisions made throughout the diagnosis and treatment of patients with psychological disorders
  • Analyze impacts of pharmacotherapeutics for psychological disorders on patient pathophysiology
  • Evaluate patients for treatment of neurological and musculoskeletal disorders
  • Analyze decisions made throughout the diagnosis and treatment of patients with neurological and musculoskeletal disorders
  • Justify decisions made throughout the diagnosis and treatment of patients with neurological and musculoskeletal disorders

 

Discussion: Decision Making When Treating Psychological Disorders

Psychological disorders, such as depression, bipolar, and anxiety disorders can present several complications for patients of all ages. These disorders affect patients physically and emotionally, potentially impacting judgment, school and/or job performance, and relationships with family and friends. Since these disorders have many drastic effects on patients’ lives, it is important for advanced practice nurses to effectively manage patient care. With patient factors and medical history in mind, it is the advanced practice nurse’s responsibility to ensure the safe and effective diagnosis, treatment, and education of patients with psychological disorders.

For this Discussion, you will select an interactive media piece to practice decision making when treating patients with psychological disorders. You will recommend the most effective pharmacotherapeutic to treat the psychological disorder presented and examine potential impacts of pharmacotherapeutics on a patient’s pathophysiology.

To Prepare
  • Review this week’s interactive media pieces and select one to focus on for this Discussion.
  • Reflect on the decision steps in the interactive media pieces, and consider the potential impacts from the administration of the associated pharmacotherapeutics on the patient’s pathophysiology.
  •  

Post a brief explanation of the psychological disorder presented and the decision steps you applied in completing the interactive media piece for the psychological disorder you selected. Then, explain how the administration of the associated pharmacotherapeutics you recommended may impact the patient’s pathophysiology. How might these potential impacts inform how you would suggest treatment plans for this patient? Be specific and provide examples.

Adult/Geriatric Depression
Hispanic Male With MDD

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

The client is a 70 year-old Hispanic American male who came to the United States when he was in high school with his father. His mother died back in Mexico when he was in school. He presents today to your office for an initial appointment for complaints of depression. The client was referred by his PCP after “routine” medical work-up to rule out an organic basis for his depression. He has no other health issues with the exception of some occasional back pain and “stiff” shoulders which he attributes to his current work as a laborer in a warehouse.

SUBJECTIVE

During today’s clinical interview, client reports that he always felt like an outsider as he was “teased” a lot for being “black” in high school. States that he had few friends, and basically kept to himself. He describes his home life as “good.” Stating “Dad did what he could for us, there were 8 of us.” He also reports a remarkably diminished interest in engaging in usual activities, states that he has gained 15 pounds in the last 2 months. He is also troubled with insomnia which began about 6 months ago, but have been progressively getting worse. He does report poor concentration which he reports is getting in “trouble” at work.

MENTAL STATUS EXAM

The client is alert, oriented to person, place, time, and event. He is casually dressed. Speech is clear, but soft. He does not readily make eye contact, but when he does, it is only for a few moments. He is endorsing feelings of depression. Affect is somewhat constricted, but improves as the clinical interview progresses. He denies visual or auditory hallucinations, no overt delusional or paranoid thought processes readily apparent. Judgment and insight appear grossly intact. He is currently denying suicidal or homicidal ideation. You administer the “Montgomery- Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)” and obtained a score of 51 (indicating severe depression).

RESOURCES

§ Montgomery, S. A., & Asberg, M. (1979). A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change. British Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 382-389.

 

Rubric Detail

  Excellent Good Fair Poor
Briefly summarize the patient case study you were assigned, including each of the three decisions you took for the patient presented. Be specific. 18 (18%) – 20 (20%) The response accurately and thoroughly summarizes in detail the patient case study assigned, including specific and complete details on each of the three decisions made for the patient presented. 16 (16%) – 17 (17%) The response accurately summarizes the patient case study assigned, including details on each of the three decisions made for the patient presented. 14 (14%) – 15 (15%) The response inaccurately or vaguely summarizes the patient case study assigned, including details on each of the three decisions made for the patient presented. 0 (0%) – 13 (13%) The response inaccurately and vaguely summarizes the patient case study assigned, including details on each of the three decisions made for the patient presented, or is missing.
Based on the decisions you recommended for the patient case study, explain whether you believe the decisions provided were supported by the evidence-based literature. Be specific and provide examples. Be sure to support your response with evidence and references from outside resources. 23 (23%) – 25 (25%) The response accurately and thoroughly explains in detail how the decisions recommended for the patient case study are supported by the evidence-based literature.

The response includes specific and relevant outside reference examples that fully support the explanation provided.

20 (20%) – 22 (22%) The response accurately explains how the decisions recommended for the patient case study are supported by the evidence-based literature.

The response includes relevant outside reference examples that lend support for the explanation provided that are accurate.

18 (18%) – 19 (19%) The response inaccurately or vaguely explains how the decisions recommended for the patient case study are supported by the evidence-based literature.

The response includes inaccurate or vague outside reference examples that may or may not lend support for the explanation provided or are misaligned to the explanation provided.

0 (0%) – 17 (17%) The response inaccurately and vaguely explains how the decisions recommended for the patient case study are supported by the evidence-based literature, or is missing.

The response includes inaccurate and vague outside reference examples that do not lend support for the explanation provided, or is missing.

What were you hoping to achieve with the decisions you recommended for the patient case study you were assigned? Support your response with evidence and references from outside resources. 18 (18%) – 20 (20%) The response accurately and thorough explains in detail what they were hoping to achieve with the decisions recommend for the patient case study assigned.

The response includes specific and relevant outside reference examples that fully support the explanation provided.

16 (16%) – 17 (17%) The response accurately explains what they were hoping to achieve with the decisions recommended for the patient case study assigned.

The response includes relevant outside reference examples that lend support for the explanation provided that are accurate.

14 (14%) – 15 (15%) The response inaccurately or vaguely explains what they were hoping to achieve with the decisions recommended for the patient case study assigned.

The response includes inaccurate or vague outside reference examples that may or may not lend support for the explanation provided or are misaligned to the explanation provided.

0 (0%) – 13 (13%) The response inaccurately and vaguely explains what they were hoping to achieve with the decisions recommended for the patient case study assigned, or is missing.

The response includes inaccurate and vague outside reference examples that do not lend support for the explanation provided, or is missing.

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with each of the decisions and the results of the decisions in the exercise. Describe whether they were different. Be specific and provide examples. 18 (18%) – 20 (20%) The response accurately and clearly explains in detail any differences between what they expected to achieve with each of the decisions and the results of the decisions in the exercise.

The response provides specific, accurate, and relevant examples that fully support whether there were differences between the decisions made and the decisions available in the exercise.

16 (16%) – 17 (17%) The response accurately explains any differences between what they expected to achieve with each of the decisions and the results of the decisions in the exercise.

The response provides accurate examples that support whether there were differences between the decisions made and the decisions available in the exercise.

14 (14%) – 15 (15%) The response inaccurately or vaguely explains any differences between what they expected to achieve with each of the decisions and the results of the decisions in the exercise.

The response provides inaccurate or vague examples that may or may not support whether there were differences between the decisions made and the decisions available in the exercise.

0 (0%) – 13 (13%) vaguely explains in detail any differences between what they expected to achieve with each of the decisions and the results of the decisions in the exercise, or is missing.

The response provides inaccurate and vague examples that do not support whether there were differences between the decisions made and the decisions available in the exercise, or is missing.

Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization:
Paragraphs make clear points that support well developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused–neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance.
5 (5%) – 5 (5%) Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity. 4 (4%) – 4 (4%) Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time. 3.5 (3.5%) – 3.5 (3.5%) Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60%–79% of the time. 0 (0%) – 3 (3%) Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity less than 60% of the time.
Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards:
Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation
5 (5%) – 5 (5%) Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors 4 (4%) – 4 (4%) Contains a few (1–2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors 3.5 (3.5%) – 3.5 (3.5%) Contains several (3–4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors 0 (0%) – 3 (3%) Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding
Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, running head, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list. 5 (5%) – 5 (5%) Uses correct APA format with no errors 4 (4%) – 4 (4%) Contains a few (1–2) APA format errors 3.5 (3.5%) – 3.5 (3.5%) Contains several (3–4) APA format errors 0 (0%) – 3 (3%) Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors

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