Discussion: Reverse transcriptase

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Discussion: Reverse transcriptase

Discussion: Reverse transcriptase

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1. Cells in _____ may act as a reservoir in which HIV can be relatively protected from antiviral drugs.

2. Which statement is true about fungal infections?

3. What of the following remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide?

4. What mechanism occurs in Raynaud phenomenon that classifies it as a type III hypersensitivity reaction?

5. Which statement about vaccines is true?

6. What is the role if reverse transcriptase in HIV infection?

7. After sexual transmission of HIV, a person can be infected yer seronegative for _____ months.

8. The class if antibody involved in type I hypersensitivity reactions is

9. What disease involves the deposition of circulating immune complexes containing an antibody against host DNA, resulting in tissue damage?

10. Hypersensitivity is best defined as a(n)

11. What is the mechanism in type III hypersensitivity reactions?

12. Stress-induced norepinephrine results in

13. Which hormone increases the formation of glucose from amino acids and free fatty acids?

14. Cells from a muscle tumor show a reduced ability to form new muscle and appear highly disorganized. This is an example of

15. Which of the following represents the correct nomenclature for benign and malignant tumors of adipose tissues, respectively?

16. What is the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and transforming growth factor-alpha ([email protected]) in cell metastasis.

17. Many cancers create a mutation of ras. What is ras?

18. Which if the following cancers originate from connective tissue?

19. Inherited mutations that predispose to cancer are almost invariably what kind if gene?

20. Which characteristic among women correlates with a high morbidity of cancer of the colon, , uterus, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, breast, uterus, and kidney?

21. What congenital malformation is commonly linked to acute leukemia in children?

WEEK 2

1. At the arterial end of capillaries, fluid moves from the intravascular space into the interstitial space because the

2. Which enzyme is secreted by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney when circulating blood is reduced?

3. Water movement between the intravascular fluid compartment and the extracellular compartment is primarily a function of

4. Physiologic ph is maintained around 7.4 because bicarbonate (HCO3) and carbonic acid (H2CO3) exist in a ratio of

5. Which are indications of dehydration?

6. In hyperkalemia, cardiac rhythm changes are a direct result of

7. What is a major determinant of the resting membrane potential necessary for transmission of nerve impulses?

8. Which inflammatory mediators are produced in asthma?

9. ___ is a fulminant form of respiratory failure characterized by acute lung inflammation and diffuse alveolocapillary injury.

10. Dyspnea is not a result of

11. Which of the following is a true statement?

12. Clinical manifestations that include unexplained weight loss, dyspnea on exertion, use of accessory muscles, and tachypnea with prolonged expiration are indicative of

13. The most successful treatment of chronic asthma begins with

14. Clinical manifestations of pulmonary hypertension include

15. Pulmonary edema usually begins at a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure or left atrial pressure of ___mmHg.

16. In tuberculosis, the body walls off the bacilli in a tubercle by stimulating

17. Kussmaul respirations may be characterized as a respiratory pattern

18. Which pleural abnormality involves a site of pleural rupture that act as a one-way valve, permitting air to enter on inspiration but preventing its escape by closing during expiration?

19. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by a(n)

20. An accurate description of childhood asthma is that it is a(n)

21. What is the primary cause of Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) of the newborn?

22. The release of fibroblast growth factor affects ARDS by causing

23. Chest wall compliance in infants is ___ in adults.

24. Which immunoglobulin is present in childhood asthma?

25. Which of the following statements about the advances in the tx of RDS of the newborn is incorrect?

WEEK 3

1. Symptoms of polycythemia vera are mainly the results of

2. Pernicious anemia generally requires continued therapy lasting

3. Clinical manifestations of mild to moderate splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, bronze-colored skin, and cardiac dysrhythmias are indicative of which anemia?

4. In hemolytic anemia, jaundice occur only when

5. A woman c/o chronic gastritis, fatigue, weight loss, and tingling in her fingers. Laboratory findings show low hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and a high mean corpuscular volume. These findings are consistent with ____anemia.

6. The underlying disorder of ___ anemia is defective secretion of intrinsic factor, which is essential for the absorption of Vit B12.

7. Which of the following is a description if consistent with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)?

8. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is described as a(n)

9. What change is seen in the leukocytes during an allergic disorder (type I) often caused by asthma, hay fever, and drug reactions?

10. What is the most common cause of vit K deficiency?

11. The sickle cell trait differs from sickle cell dx in that the child with sickle cell trait

12. Polycythemia occurs in a fetus because

13. G6PD and sickle cell dx are

14. What is the name of the disorder in which levels of bilirubin remain excessively high in the newborn and are deposited in the brain?

15. In full term infant, the normal erythrocyte life span is __ days, whereas the adult is ___days.

16. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune process involving antibodies against

17. The risk of developing coronary artery dx is increased up to threefold by

18. What is the primary mechanism of atherogenesis?

19. An individual who is demonstrating elevated levels of troponin, creatine kinase (CK), and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) is exhibiting indicators associated with:

20. Which disorder causes transitory truncal rash that is nonpruritic and pink with erythematous macules that may fade in the center, making them appear as a ringworm?

21. When does most cardiovascular development occur?

22. The foremen ovale is covered by a flap that creates a check valve allowing blood to flow unidirectionally from ___ to the ___ .

23. When does systemic vascular resistance in infants begin to rise?

24. Which congenital heart defects occur in trisomy 13, 18, and down syndrome?

25. What is the most important manifestation of aortic coarctation in the neonate?

WEEK 4

1. What primary problem resulting from respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the newborn?

2. Phagocytosis involves neutrophils actively attacking, engulfing, and destroying which microorganism?

3. How high does the plasma glucose have to be before the threshold for glucose is achieved?

4. Erythrocyte life span of less than 120 days, ineffective bone marrow response to erythropoietin, and altered iron metabolism describes the pathophysiologic characteristics of which type of anemia?

5. Which statement is true concerning the IgM?

6. Which type of immunity is produced by an individual after either natural exposure to the antigen or after immunization against the antigen?

7. The coronary ostia are located in the:

8. Which hepatitis virus is known to be sexually transmitted?

9. The risk for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) decreases for premature infants when they are born between how many weeks or gestation?

10. What is the ratio of coronary capillaries to cardiac muscle cells?

11. What is the most common cause of insufficient erythropoiesis in children?

12. Which term is used to identify the movement of gas and air into and out of the lungs?

13. Perceived stress elicits an emotional, anticipatory response that begins where?

14. Which complex (wave) represents the sum of all ventricular muscle cell depolarizations?

15. Causes of hyperkalemia include:

16. Which criterion is used to confirm a dx of asthma in an 8-year-old child?

17. What is the role of caretaker genes?

18. What is the action of urodilatin?

19. The Papanicolaou (Pap) test is used to screen for which cancer?

20. What is the life span of an erythrocyte (in days)?

21. Hypersensitivity is best defined as a(n):

22. What is the final stage of the infectious process?

23. What is the life span of platelets (in days)?

24. What process allows the kidney to an increase response in workload?

25. Which substance has been shown to increase the risk of cancer when used in combination with tobacco smoking?

26. Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) can occur if the mother:

27. Which compensatory mechanism is spontaneously used by children diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot to relieve spells?

28. How much urine accumulates in the bladder before the mechanoreceptors sense bladder fullness?

29. The function of the foramen ovale in a fetus allows what to occur?

30. Low plasma albumin causes edema as a result of a reduction in which pressure?

31. In a normal, nonmutant stage, an oncogene is referred to as a:

32. Causes of hyperkalemia include:

33. Research supports the premise that exercise has a probable impact on reducing the risk of which cancer?

34. What is the functional unit of the kidney called?

35. What is the first stage in the infectious process?

36. Which statement concerning exotoxins is true?

37. An infant’s hemoglobin must fall below ___g/dl before signs of pallor, tachycardia, and systolic murmurs occur.

38. What is the role of collagen in the clotting process?

39. Where are antibodies produced?

40. What is the purpose to the spirometry measurement?

41. What is the most abundant class of plasma protein?

42. What is the most important negative inotropic agent?

43. Decrease lung compliance means that the lungs are demonstrating which characteristic?

44. Blood vessels of the kidneys are innervated by the:

45. What are the abnormalities in cytokines found in children which cystic fibrosis (CF)?

46. The generation of clonal diversity occurs primarily during which phase of life?

47. How is most of the oxygen in the blood transported?

48. Fetal hematopoiesis occurs in which structure?

49. What is the chief predisposing factor for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the newborn?

50. Which disorder results in decreased erythrocytes and platelets with changes in leukocytes and has clinical manifestations of pallor, fatigue, petechiae, purpura, bleeding, and fever?

SOME MIXED QUESTIONS

1. Raynaud phenomenon is classified as a type III hypersensitivity reaction and is due to:

2. Deficiencies in which element can produce depression of both B and T cell functions

3. During a stress response, increase anxiety, vigilance, and arousal is prompted by

4. Stress-age syndrome results in decreased

5. Which of the viruses below are oncogenic DNA viruses?

6. Which cytokine is involved in producing cachexia syndrome?

7. Childhood exposure to all of the following risk factors increase susceptibility to cancer, except

8. What id the mechanism in type II hypersensitivity reactions?

9. What effect does estrogen have on lymphocytes?

10. Which hormone prompts increased anxiety, vigilance, and arousal during a stress response?

11. Intestinal polyps are benign neoplasms and the first stage in development of colon cancer. These findings support the notion that:

12. In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a piece of chromosome 9 fuses to a piece of chromosome 22. This is an example of which mutation of normal genes to oncogenes

13. Tobacco smoking is associated with cancers of all of the following, except

14. In which primary immune deficiency is there a partial to complete absence of T-cell immunity?

15. The effect that low serum albumin has on the central stress response is to

16. How does the loss of chloride during vomiting cause metabolic alkalosis?

17. When thirst is experienced, how are osmoreceptors activated?

18. Why are infants susceptible to significant losses in total body water?

19. In ARDS alveoli and respiratory bronchioles fill with fluid as a result of the:

20. A(n) __ is a circumscribed area of suppuration and destruction of lung parenchyma.

21. Which of the following types of croup is most common?

22. Kussmaul respirations as a respiratory pattern may be associated with which characteristics?

23. What is the fundamental physiologic manifestation of anemia?

24. Which of the following describes how the body compensates for anemia?

25. Local signs and symptoms of hodgkin’s disease-related lymphadenopathy is a result of:

26. __ is the virus associated with Burkitt lymphoma in African children:

27. Which defect produces a systolic ejection murmur at the right upper sternal border that transmits to the neck and left lower sternal border with an occasional ejection click?

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