Ethical issues related to the use of prenatal genetic testing

Outline

Ethical issues related to the use of prenatal genetic testing to terminate pregnancy due to the identification of gender or genetic/chromosomal disorders

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  1. Introduction
    1. Introduction to prenatal genetic testing, prenatal genetic testing techniques, abortion, and ethical issues in prenatal genetic testing.
  2. Body paragraph 1
    1. Topic sentence: the use of prenatal genetic testing in modern medical practice
      1. Supporting detail 1: categorization and description of prenatal genetic tests which are widely used (Tsuge, 2016).
      1. Supporting detail 2: history of prenatal testing
      1. Supporting detail 3: uncertainty in both prenatal testing and genomic medicine (Tsuge, 2016)
  3. Body paragraph 2
    1. Transition: the use of prenatal genetic test in modern medical practice is informed by the potential benefits to the unborn child
    1. Topic sentence: potential benefits of prenatal testing
      1. Supporting detail 1: benefits of prenatal genetic testing to the fetus
      1. Supporting detail 2: benefits and risks of prenatal genetic testing to the pregnant woman (Richardson & Ormond, 2018).
      1. Supporting detail 3: the benefits of reassurance provided by prenatal testing.
  4. Body paragraph 3
    1. Transition: besides the benefits of obtaining information on the fetus, the ethical implication of prenatal genetic testing on the woman should be considered.
    1. Topic sentence: ethical implications of genetic prenatal testing on pregnant woman
      1. Supporting detail 1: the effects of prenatal testing on the advancement of the autonomy of pregnant woman (Tsuge, 2016).
      1. Supporting detail 2: the effects of prenatal testing on the pregnant woman’s privacy
      1. Supporting detail 3: the ethical attributes of options yielded by prenatal genetic testing results (Richardson & Ormond, 2018).
      1. Supporting detail 4: ethical implications of false-positive and false-negative results in view of the potential interventions (Richardson & Ormond, 2018).
  5. Body paragraph 4
    1. Transition: there are other ethical issues related to prenatal genetic testing  independent of the woman or the fetus that should be considered.
    1. Topic sentence: ethical issues in prenatal genetic testing
      1. Supporting detail 1: limitations of prenatal genetic testing (Lea, Williams, & Donahue, 2018)
      1. Supporting detail 2: ethical implications of obtaining prenatal genetic information if there no treatment or intervention
      1. Supporting detail 3: uncertain implications of applying early intervention (Lea et al., 2018)
  6. Opinion and conclusion
    1. Transition: prenatal genetic testing may result in both positive and negative ethical implications.
    1. Statement of opinion: due to the potential adverse personal and societal consequences of prenatal testing, the ethical implications of its use should be considered in each case.

References

Lea, D. H., Williams, J., & Donahue, M. P. (2018). Ethical Issues in Genetic Testing. Medscape. Retrieved from https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/505222_4

Richardson, A. & Ormond, K. E. (2018, February). Ethical considerations in prenatal testing: Genomic testing and medical uncertainty. Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 23(1), 1–6.

Tsuge, A. (2016). Ethical and Social Implications of Current Prenatal Genetic Testing. Journal of Mammalian Ova Research 33(2):109-113.

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