Foreign Aid Memo – Africa

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POLICY MEMORANDUM

TO: Hon. Ahmed Shide, Minister of Finance and Economic Development

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FROM:

DATE: December 5, 2021

RE: Policy option for improving development aid utilization by the Ethiopian government.

 

Ethiopia attracts considerable attention in the international political landscape[1]. The country is a developing economy and has a population of around 115 million people[2]. Ethiopia is one of the top recipients of foreign aid in the world and the top recipient of aid in Africa. In 2019, the World Bank reports that Ethiopia received foreign aid amounting to US$4.809 billion[3]. On average, the country has been receiving aid of $3.5 billion annually from a range of donors[4] including the US, the UK, the European Union, Japan, Canada, and Sweden[5].

 

While the donors provide humanitarian aid and military aid to Ethiopia, the bulk of the aid is development aid[6]. The country still grapples with various challenges that are related to its level of economic development. Notably, a sizeable proportion of the country’s population struggles with issues around food insecurity. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, around 8.6 million people in the country were facing acute food insecurity in 2020[7]. The organization also estimates that around 12.9 million people are facing food shortages in 2021 due to the combination of various factors such as the COVID-19 pandemic, political instability in the Tigray region, currency depreciation, and rising inflation[8]. The measure of Human Development Index (HDI) indicates that the quality of life in Ethiopia is still low on the indicators of per capita income, education, and life expectancy. In 2020, Ethiopia’s HDI was 0.485 points which were considerably lower than the global average of 0.724 points[9]. Another developmental challenge affecting Ethiopia is the prevalence of poverty. In 2020, the share of the population living below the poverty line was 24%.[10]

 

Ethiopia faces significant complications surrounding the utilization of development aid. The country continues to experience a high degree of dependency on foreign aid. Foreign aid accounts for around 50 to 60% of the annual national budget of the country[11]. The large share of aid in the country’s budget is an indication that the country is highly reliant on the injection of foreign aid into its public expenditure. The country has failed to meet its targets related to the collection of domestic tax and non-tax revenue which has created deficits in the country’s budget. In July 2021, the Ministry of Finance indicated that the country requires $1.5 billion in aid to finance the budget deficit[12]. The development aid will finance ongoing projects such as the Drought Resilience and Sustainable Livelihoods Programme and Participatory Small-scale Irrigation Development Programme II which aim to improve food security and reduce poverty.[13]

 

Ethiopia’s dependency on foreign aid portends problems that will hinder development in the future. For instance, the Ethiopian government launched a 10-year economic development plan in 2020 aimed at propelling quality-based economic growth[14]. The plan dubbed “Ethiopia: An African Beacon of Prosperity” will be highly reliant on development aid from donors due to the country’s low domestic revenue. Due to Ethiopia’s current political instability, withdrawal of aid by some donors, and the threat by various donors to cease aid, the country will face considerable challenges to its quest to accomplish the plan. For instance, the European Union suspended aid to Ethiopia in January 2021 worth $107 million over the political crisis in the Tigray region[15]. As such, there is an urgent need for Ethiopia to re-evaluate its approach to the utilization of development aid since development aid to the country is projected to decline.

 

Ethiopia has governance problems arising from corruption and mismanagement of aid[16]. Firstly, the Ethiopian government has used the allocation of development aid as a tool for the oppression of certain regions. For instance, the Human Rights Watch (HRW) has accused the Ethiopian government of withholding aid from regions with strong opposition support. The government’s discriminatory approach to the allocation of aid was noted in the facilitation of credit to farmers around Ethiopia[17]. Farmers who were members or perceived supporters of opposition parties were denied housing, agricultural inputs, and micro-credit loans. Government officials steal and misuse development aid by inflating the costs of various projects. Corruption and mismanagement are especially rampant in the education and health care departments[18]. The misappropriation and misuse of foreign aid result in a decline in the quality of infrastructural projects as the officials undertake substandard projects to satisfy donor requirements. In this way, misappropriation of the funds hampers development in Ethiopia. Furthermore, corruption and mismanagement of development aid lead to ballooning of public expenditure which has contributed to the expansion of the budget deficit. Therefore, there is urgency in the ministry to explore policy options to improve the use of development aid.

 

Policy Alternatives

 

The three policy alternatives for improving the utilization of development aid in Ethiopia are (1) improved budget preparation and execution (2) development of independent monitoring, oversight, and reporting system, and (3) pursuit of greater operational effectiveness.

 

Improved Budget Preparation and Execution

 

The first policy option proposes far-reaching improvements to the budget preparation and execution processes of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development to improve the fiscal discipline of the Ethiopian government. In 2021, the federal government approved a budget of 561.67 billion birr ($12.9 billion) for the 2021/2022 fiscal year.[19] The budget allocates 183.5 billion birr to capital spending, 162.2 billion birr to recurrent spending, subsidies to regional states amount to 203 billion birr while 12 billion was allocated to sustainable development goals.

 

Firstly, the budget preparation and execution process can be improved by introducing a performance-based framework for allocating funds. The approach involve resource allocation based on each departments, projects and programs based on their contribution to the attainment of established development goals.[20] For instance, Drought Resilience and Sustainable Livelihoods Programme can receive a bigger allocation of funds since the program has improved the capacity of communities to cope with resource scarcity.[21] Secondly, the ministry should adopt a priority-based approach to budget preparation and execution. A priority-based approach will ease the development of priorities and targets based on the government’s strategic goals and an assessment of the performance of different departments in the previous fiscal year.[22] Thirdly, the ministry should make a shift towards driver-based budget planning. The driver-based approach allocates resources to the programs that contribute the highest impact towards the attainment of the government’s development goals.[23] For instance, the ministry can allocate more resources to programs like Small-scale Irrigation Development Programme II which is a key driver towards the attainment of food security.

 

There is a need for significant improvements to the budget preparation and execution strategies of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development to achieve fiscal discipline. An improved budget preparation and execution strategy will ensure that the government spends within its limits to improve the utilization of development aid[24]. Since aid comprises around 50 to 60% of the annual budget of Ethiopia, there is urgency for fiscal discipline to ensure that the aid is used effectively and that the government operates within its financial limits[25]. Improved budget preparation and execution will improve the utilization of development aid by allocating funds to government departments and projects that are of the highest priority or that have the greatest positive impact in propelling economic development. Improved fiscal preparation will allow the ministry to address the growing budget deficit which is at $1.5 billion for the current year to reduce the dependence on foreign aid[26]. Changing the approach to budget preparation and execution will ensure that economic development projects receive development aid within a revamped priority framework where the resources are directed to the most urgent and impactful programs.[27]

 

Independent monitoring, oversight, and reporting system

 

The second policy option proposes the development of an independent monitoring, oversight, and reporting system for the management of development aid. One of the noted failings of the current approach to the utilization of development funds in Ethiopia is the limited capacity to undertake monitoring and oversight of the use of the funds after disbursement. For example, state capture has impeded the ability of the Federal Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission to effectively detect and prosecute corruption across various federal government agencies.[28] Furthermore, the government has displayed low proactivity in rooting out corrupt practices across departments and agencies.[29] The lack of effective monitoring and oversight procedures has allowed corruption and misuse of development aid to fester

 

To overcome this problem, independent monitoring, oversight, and reporting system should be created to oversee the appropriation of the development aid. The system will comprise members from across the political spectrum and include stakeholders from the civil society who will fulfill the function of overseeing the utilization of the development funds across the country. The members will continually monitor government processes that are highly susceptible to exploitation[30]. Monitoring activities will aim to detect instances of corruption in the early stages to initiate processes to curb plunder or misappropriation of the development aid. The system will direct focus on programs and projects that have previously reported cases of corruption and misuse of funds.

 

Oversight by the independent system will aim to inculcate accountability in the utilization of the development aid. The main process of oversight will be audits. The auditing processes will revolve around the inspection of how the government departments have utilized the allocated funds.[31] The audits will seek to detect whether corruption or misuse of funds has taken place, how it happened and who was involved. Independent auditing will minimize interference by actors in the federal government to achieve greater accountability in the distribution and use of the development aid.

 

The reporting component of the independent system will enable people to tip the members of the commission to instances of discrimination, misuse, and corruption surrounding the management of the development aid. Members of the public will have access to an online channel for anonymous whistleblowing on corruption at all levels of government. The reporting function will allow the members to initiate focused monitoring and auditing activities to identify instances of corruption and misappropriation of the development aid. Reporting will expand the capacity of the independent system to identify loopholes that are exploited for corruption. Additionally, the reporting system will minimize cases of discrimination by the government when allocating development aid funds[32].

 

Pursue operational effectiveness

 

The third policy option proposes the pursuit of greater operational effectiveness in government departments that use development aid. The goal of the policy option is to improve the effectiveness of the various government departments utilizing development aid to optimize the available funds to draw the greatest benefits[33]. Operational ineffectiveness in the Ethiopian government has contributed to the misuse and wastage of funds amounting to tens of millions of dollars annually.[34]

 

Firstly, operational effectiveness can be attained by reducing inefficiencies across the various levels of government[35]. For example, the ministry can pinpoint processes in the various projects and programs funded by development aid where inefficiencies lead to wastage of funds and initiate changes. Secondly, improving operational effectiveness will require the various government departments that utilize aid to undertake automation to improve efficiency across processes and reduce expenditure.[36] Thirdly, the ministry can consolidate agencies and programs that have duplicative processes and goals. Eliminating redundancies will guarantee more funds for the development projects. Finally, the ministry can modify the public procurement processes to improve the effectiveness of the sourcing processes and attain savings.

 

Operational effectiveness across government will improve the use of development aid without requiring additional financial resources.[37] Having greater effectiveness across operations will eliminate inefficiencies thereby minimizing wastage and improving the use of the aid. Additionally, operational effectiveness will seal any loopholes that are exploited for misuse.

 

Evaluation Criteria

 

The evaluation of the three policy alternatives will apply three criteria. The first criterion is the political feasibility of implementing the policy proposal. Political feasibility concerns the acceptability of the policy among relevant political actors.[38] The assessment of political feasibility will inform on whether there is adequate support and goodwill from the relevant political actors to implement the policy. Political feasibility is important since implementing critical changes to policy in government requires the support of the executive and legislature. More than any other criterion, an analysis of political feasibility offers an indication of the acceptability of the policy with the general public.

 

The second evaluation criterion is the effectiveness of the policy in reducing development aid misuse and corruption. The criterion assesses how effectively the policy option will curtail or minimize incidences of misuse or corruption associated with the use of development aid in various projects and programs in Ethiopia. The criterion is included because it offers an indication of whether the policy will produce the required impact of curbing corruption and misuse of development aid in the short and long terms. Evaluation of effectiveness examines whether the benefits from implementing the policy change surpass the costs on the way to the attainment of the desired outcomes.

 

The third criterion is the administrative feasibility of the policy alternative. The administrative feasibility criterion examines whether the entity is capable of implementing the policy to a satisfactory level.[39] Under this criterion, the evaluation will focus on whether the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development has the capability to implement the proposals of each policy option. Administrative feasibility explores whether the ministry has the knowledge, competence, and resources to effect the policy change within established timeframes.

 

Stakeholder Analysis

 

Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed’s support is crucial to the implementation of any policy changes that impact how the Federal Government of Ethiopia utilizes development aid from donors. PM Ahmed assumed office in April 2018 and has pursued a reformation agenda across the government to overhaul the nature and structure of government.[40] Under his leadership, there has been a greater willingness by the government to review its approach in the allocation and distribution of development aid.[41]

 

Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs Demeke Mekonnen has the role of forging relationships with the various donors to Ethiopia. The development of amicable and lasting relationships with foreign donors is dependent on the effective utilization of the development aid delivered to Ethiopia. Mekonnen has indicated that Ethiopia needs to minimize its dependence on foreign aid while pursuing greater internal sustainability.[42]

 

Minister of Planning and Development Fitsum Assefa oversees the functions surrounding the overall economic and infrastructural development of Ethiopia. In 2020, Assefa launched the 10-year economic development plan in 2020 for Ethiopia. The attainment of this development plan is heavily reliant on the capacity of the federal government to effectively utilize development aid across various projects and programs.

 

The Federal Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission of Ethiopia (FEACC) is the agency tasked with combatting and preventing corruption in the federal government.[43] As such, the reduction of corruption in the allocation, distribution, and use of development aid falls within the purview of the anti-corruption commission.

 

The citizens of Ethiopia are invested in the development of their country. The citizens expected the government to distribute development aid fairly and equitably across all regions of the country irrespective of political affiliation.[44] There is an expectation that effective utilization of development aid will improve the lives of citizens and uplift the quality of life.

 

Some of the donors to Ethiopia include the US, the UK, the EU, Japan, and Sweden. The donors act as development partners with Ethiopia and donate millions of dollars each year. In this way, the donors expect the Ethiopian government to utilize the funds in an effective way to enhance development and improve the quality of life of the citizens.[45]

 

Stakeholder Engagement Strategy

 

Any plan to change budget preparation and execution will require the support of stakeholders in the executive. Stakeholder engagement with Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, Deputy Prime Minister Demeke Mekonnen, and Minister Fitsum Assefa need to be convinced that changing the budgeting process will achieve reforms in the federal government’s expenditure.[46] They can be persuaded by emphasizing the fiscal discipline that the government will attain by improving the budgeting process. Furthermore, engagement with these three stakeholders will aim to underscore how enhanced prioritization in the allocation of aid to projects will achieve more impactful development. Citizens and the FEACC will need to be persuaded that a more effective budgeting process will eliminate discrimination in the distribution of aid across development programs. Finally, donors are supportive of efforts to improve how the country uses aid and there this policy will be readily embraced.

 

The development of an independent monitoring, oversight, and reporting system needs the support of stakeholders in government. Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed will need to be convinced that internal systems have failed and that misuse and corruption can be addressed through an independent approach. Similarly, Deputy Prime Minister Demeke Mekonnen and Minister Fitsum Assefa have to be persuaded that adopting the independent system will curb corruption and improve accountability in the ministries. The FEACC is mandated to fight corruption and therefore the engagement needs to highlight how the independent system reduced plunder and misappropriation of the development aid. For citizens and donors, the strategy is to underscore how the policy change will reduce misuse of funds and facilitate development.

 

On improving the operational effectiveness of government, engagement with Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, Deputy Prime Minister Demeke Mekonnen, and Minister Fitsum Assefa will emphasize cost-savings in government expenditure over the short and long terms. These three stakeholders from the executive are also interested in how implementing the option will reduce the deficit. The FEACC will be informed about how the option improves the use of financial resources in government thereby sealing loopholes that can be exploited to steal funds. Donors are encouraged by the cost savings in public expenditure that increase funds for development activities. For citizens, persuasion will focus on how operational effectiveness in government frees up funds for development.

 

Policy Tools

The polls and surveys tool will be applied to enhance the development of the policy proposals. Polls and surveys will collect data from people in government as well as the general public. The deployment of the polls and surveys will seek to gauge the prevailing opinion about whether the policy proposals will lead to improvements in how the Ethiopian government allocates, distributes, and uses development aid.[47]  Polls and surveys will provide critical information about the support for the policy option. Favorable results from the polls and surveys will indicate that there is significant support for the policy proposals and that few changes are required to enhance that particular policy option. However, moderate or unfavorable views about the policy option will be a call to improve the various proposals.

 

The automation tool applies to the development of the various policy proposals in different ways. Firstly, automation can be an effective tool for improving the budget preparation and execution of policy options. The automation can ensure that the various needs and demands around the development aid receive due consideration during the budget planning process.[48] For the second policy option, automation can be deployed as a key feature of the independent monitoring, oversight, and reporting system. Automation can enhance the various processes of assessing and auditing the use of development aid across the country. Additionally, automation will provide an effective platform for the reporting system. Finally, automation can be incorporated into the policy option that focuses on improving the operational effectiveness of the government. Automation can be useful in pinpointing inefficiencies in the government departments that utilize development aid.

 

 

Policy Recommendation

 

The recommended policy option for implementation is improving budget preparation and execution. The first element of the policy is the adoption of a performance-based framework for allocating funds, Secondly, the ministry will priority-based approach to budget preparation and execution. Thirdly, budget planning will inculcate a driver-based framework. Changes to the budgeting approach will inject fiscal discipline in government and improve the usage of development aid. The policy option will ensure that aid is allocated with critical consideration for the government’s development objectives and priorities. The policy option is politically feasible because it will draw the support of the relevant stakeholders in the public and general public. Secondly, applying this policy option is an effective approach for reducing corruption and misuse of development aid through enhancements in the allocation of funds across government departments. Finally, the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development has administrative feasibility to implement the policy since the ministry has the resources, personnel, and know-how to implement the changes to budgeting. Therefore, improvements to budget preparation and execution will help to address challenges around aid and improve utilization of the funds to improve development and quality of life in Ethiopia.

 

 

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APPENDIX
Appendix 1: Total foreign aid to Ethiopia in US$ millions (2012-2019)

 

 

Source: The Global Economy[49]

 

 

Appendix 2: Sources of finance for Ethiopia’s federal budget 2014-2020

 

Source: UNICEF[50]

 

 

Appendix 3: Human development index trends of Ethiopia (2000 – 2019)

 

Source: UNDP[51]

 

 

Appendix 4: Summary of Policy Options and Evaluation Criteria

 

Policy Solution Policy Specifics Political Feasibility Effectiveness in reducing corruption and misuse Administrative Feasibility
Improved budget preparation and execution Changes include a performance-based framework, priority-based allocation, and driver-based budget planning. High. Support from political actors for changes to the budgeting process. High. Greater constraints from an improved budgeting process will curb corruption and misuse. High. The ministry has the capability to change the budgeting process.
Development of independent monitoring, oversight, and reporting system

 

Developing a system outside government that allows for independent monitoring, oversight, and reporting to detect, curb and punish. Moderate. Support for an independent system is mostly supported by political actors outside the government with low support within the government. High. An independent system will considerably improve the ability to identify and prevent corruption and misappropriation of the funds. Low. The department has a low capacity to develop and implement an independent system.
Operational effectiveness in the use of development fund Reducing operational inefficiencies, automation, and consolidation of agencies and departments. High. There is widespread political support for cutting down on inefficiencies and wastages in government. Moderate. Can help to curb corruption and misappropriation of development funds to a limited degree. High. The department has the capability to implement operational changes.

 

 

 

Appendix 5: Stakeholder interest and influence

 

 

 

Appendix 6: Degree of Support

[1] Alexis Akwagyiram. “How can Africa move away from aid dependence?” BBC News, (2013): https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-22270164

[2] Mulu Teka. “With high prevalence of lived poverty, Ethiopians rate government’s economic performance as poor.” AfroBarometer, (2021): https://media.africaportal.org/documents/ad426-ethiopians_rate_governments_economic_management_as_poor-afrobarometer_di_eitInDy.pdf

[3] WorldBank. ” Net official development assistance and official aid received (current US$).” The World Bank, (2021): https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ALLD.CD

[4] Andrea Rodriguez. “How foreign aid helps Ethiopia.” The Borgen Project, (2019): https://borgenproject.org/how-foreign-aid-helps-ethiopia/

[5] FTS. “Ethiopia 2020.” Financial Tracking Service, (2020): https://fts.unocha.org/countries/71/donors/2020?order=total_funding&sort=desc

[6] Kiros Abeselom. “The impact of foreign aid in sustainable development in Africa: a case study of Ethiopia.” Open Journal of Political Science 8, no. 04 (2018): 365.https://www.scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=87200

[7] FAO. “Ethiopia.”  Food and Agriculture Organization, (2021): https://www.fao.org/emergencies/countries/detail/en/c/151593/

[8] Lisa Schlein. “Food Shortages Increasing as Conflict Spreads in Northern Ethiopia.” VOA, (2021): https://www.voanews.com/a/food-shortages-increasing-as-conflict-spreads-in-northern-ethiopia/6258245.html

[9] TGE. “Ethiopia: Human Development.”  The Global Economy, (2021): https://www.theglobaleconomy.com/Ethiopia/human_development/

[10] Mulu Teka. “With high prevalence of lived poverty, Ethiopians rate government’s economic performance as poor.” AfroBarometer, (2021): https://media.africaportal.org/documents/ad426-

[11] Oakland Institute. “Development aid to Ethiopia: Overlooking Violence, Marginalization, and Political Repression.” (2013): https://www.oaklandinstitute.org/sites/oaklandinstitute.org/files/OI_Brief_Development_Aid_Ethiopia.pdf

[12] AddisFortune. “Ethiopia Hopes for $1.5b in Foreign Aid to Finance Looming Budget Deficit.” (2021): https://addisfortune.news/ethiopia-hopes-for-1-5b-in-foreign-aid-to-finance-looming-budget-deficit/

[13] IFAD. ” Participatory Small-scale Irrigation Development Programme II.”  International Fund for Agricultural Development, (2021): https://www.ifad.org/en/web/operations/-/project/2000001134

[14] FANABC. “10 Year Perspective Plan Intended To Make Ethiopia African Beacon of Prosperity by 2030.”  Fana Broadcasting Corporate, (2021): https://www.fanabc.com/english/10-year-perspective-plan-intended-to-make-ethiopia-african-beacon-of-prosperity-by-2030/

[15] David Clarke. (2021). “EU suspends Ethiopian budget support over Tigray crisis?” Reuters, (2021): https://www.reuters.com/article/us-ethiopia-conflict-eu-idUSKBN29K1SS

[16] Seid Hassan. “Donor Aid and Corruption in Ethiopia.”  (2013): https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256047467_Donor_Aid_and_Corruption_in_Ethiopia

[17] BBC. “Ethiopia used aid to bribe voters – Human Rights Watch.” BBC News, (2010): https://addisfortune.news/ethiopia-hopes-for-1-5b-in-foreign-aid-to-finance-looming-budget-deficit/

[18] Seid Hassan. “Donor Aid and Corruption in Ethiopia.”  (2013): https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256047467_Donor_Aid_and_Corruption_in_Ethiopia

[19] Brook Abdu. “Budgetary up hills: looking into the 561.6 billion birr budget.” The Reporter, (2021): https://www.thereporterethiopia.com/article/budgetary-hills-looking-5616b-birr-budget/

[20] WFD. “Performance-Based Budgeting: a ‘Whole of Government’ Iniative.” Westminster Foundation for Democracy, (2020): https://www.wfd.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Budget-policy-brief-8.pdf

[21] AFDB. “Multinational – Drought Resilience and Sustainable Livelihoods Programme in the Horn of Africa (DRSLP) – Project II.” African Development Bank Group, (2021): https://projectsportal.afdb.org/dataportal/VProject/show/P-Z1-AAZ-036

[22] RNMM. “Priority based budgeting.”  Government of Rio Rancho, New Mexico, (2016): https://rrnm.gov/DocumentCenter/View/70691/6-FY18-Priority-Based-Budgeting

[23] Rami Ali. “Get Your Financial Planning in Gear with Driver-Based Budgeting.” Oracle Net Institute, (2021): https://www.netsuite.com/portal/resource/articles/business-intelligence/get-your-financial-planning-in-gear-with-driver-based-budgeting.shtml

[24] Nikola Ćirović. “Lack of fiscal discipline: Challenges and possible solutions.” Zbornik Matice srpske za drustvene nauke 145 (2013): 707-718. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/270379435_Lack_of_fiscal_discipline_Challenges_and_possible_solutions

[25] Oakland Institute. “Development aid to Ethiopia.” (2013): https://www.oaklandinstitute.org/sites/oaklandinstitute.org/files/OI_Brief_Development_Aid_Ethiopia.pdf

[26] AddisFortune. “Ethiopia Hopes for $1.5b in Foreign Aid to Finance Looming Budget Deficit.” (2021): https://addisfortune.news/ethiopia-hopes-for-1-5b-in-foreign-aid-to-finance-looming-budget-deficit/

[27] WorldBank (2019). “Improving Capacity for Better Use of Public Funds.” The World Bank (2019): https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2019/03/18/improving-capacity-for-better-use-of-public-funds

[28] Seid Hassan. “Corruption, state capture, and the effectiveness of anticorruption agency in post-communist Ethiopia.” Economic and Political Studies 6, no. 4 (2018): 368-416. https://digitalcommons.murraystate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1018&context=faculty

[29] Kaunain Rahman. “Overview of corruption and anti-corruption in Ethiopia.” Transparency International, (2018): https://www.u4.no/publication/overview-of-corruption-and-anti-corruption-in-ethiopia.pdf

 

[30] Mazlina Mustapha and Lim Yan Kong. “An Independent Audit Oversight System in a Developing Country.” Studies of Applied Economics 39, no. 4 (2021). http://ojs.ual.es/ojs/index.php/eea/article/viewFile/4573/4505

 

[31] IIA. “The Role of Auditing in Public Sector Governance.”  The Institute of Internal Auditors, (2012): https://na.theiia.org/standards-guidance/public%20documents/public_sector_governance1_1_.pdf

[32] BBC. “Ethiopia used aid to bribe voters – Human Rights Watch.” BBC News, (2010): https://addisfortune.news/ethiopia-hopes-for-1-5b-in-foreign-aid-to-finance-looming-budget-deficit/

[33] Vinai Trichur. “Driving operational excellence in the public sector doesn’t have to be hard.” Censeo Consulting Group, (2018): https://www.censeoconsulting.com/insight/driving-operational-excellence-in-the-public-sector-doesnt-have-to-be-hard/

[34] Janelle Plummer. “Diagnosing Corruption in Ethiopia.” The World Bank, (2012): https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/210171468024611636/pdf/699430PUB0Publ067869B09780821395318.pdf

[35] Derrick Moreira. “Operational effectiveness in the public sector: what it can offer and how to get started.” GovLoop, (2019): https://www.govloop.com/community/blog/operational-effectiveness-in-the-public-sector-what-it-can-offer-and-how-to-get-started/

[36] Jens Riis Andersen et al. “How governments can harness the power of automation at scale.” McKinsey & Company, (2019): https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/public-and-social-sector/our-insights/how-governments-can-harness-the-power-of-automation-at-scale

[37] Vinai Trichur. “Driving operational excellence.” Censeo Consulting Group, (2018): https://www.censeoconsulting.com/insight/driving-operational-excellence-in-the-public-sector-doesnt-have-to-be-hard/

[38] Hamlin, Alan. “Political Feasibility.” E-International Relations, (2012): https://www.e-ir.info/2012/08/29/political-feasibility/

[39] Richard Caputo. Policy analysis for social workers. SAGE Publications, 2013. https://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-assets/58352_book_item_58352.pdf

[40] Green, Andrew. “Is Abiy’s reform agenda over in Ethiopia?” World Politics Review, (2020): https://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/trend-lines/28904/is-abiy-s-reform-agenda-over-in-ethiopia

[41] Elise Dufief. “Winds of change – can Abiy Ahmed open up Ethiopia?” Publish What You Find, (2018): https://www.publishwhatyoufund.org/2018/07/winds-change-can-abiy-ahmed-open-ethiopia/

[42] Demeke Mekonnen,. “Statement by H.E. Demeke Mekonnen at the The General Debate of the 76th Session of the United Nations General Assembly.” UN Meetings, (2020): https://estatements.unmeetings.org/estatements/10.0010/20210925/dJqXDXV2hTWs/nDfKQlkIuxC0_en.pdf

[43] Europa. “Federal Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission of Ethiopia (FEACC).” European Union, (2020): https://europa.eu/capacity4dev/file/7582/download?token=bsfYk4Uu

[44] BBC. “Ethiopia used aid to bribe voters – Human Rights Watch.” BBC News, (2010): https://addisfortune.news/ethiopia-hopes-for-1-5b-in-foreign-aid-to-finance-looming-budget-deficit/

[45] OECD. “Working towards more effective collective donor responses to corruption.” Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, (2008): https://www.oecd.org/dac/accountable-effective-institutions/45019669.pdf

[46] Elise Dufief. “Winds of change – can Abiy Ahmed open up Ethiopia?” Publish What You Find, (2018): https://www.publishwhatyoufund.org/2018/07/winds-change-can-abiy-ahmed-open-ethiopia/

[47] Ismail Radwan and Alhokail Abdulla. “From polls to policies: How opinion surveys are helping to guide Saudi decisionmakers.” World Bank Blogs, (2021): https://blogs.worldbank.org/arabvoices/polls-policies-how-opinion-surveys-are-helping-guide-saudi-decisionmakers

[48] Jens Riis Andersen et al. “How governments can harness the power of automation at scale.” McKinsey & Company, (2019): https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/public-and-social-sector/our-insights/how-governments-can-harness-the-power-of-automation-at-scale

 

[49] TGE. “Ethiopia” Foreign aid.” The Global Economy, (2020): https://www.theglobaleconomy.com/Ethiopia/foreign_aid/

[50] UNICEF. “Analysis of the 2019/2020 federal budget proclamation.” United Nations Children’s Fund, (2020): https://www.unicef.org/ethiopia/media/2181/file/Analysis%20of%20the%202019_20%20Federal%20Budget%20Proclamation%20.pdf

 

[51] UNDP. “Human development report 2020 – Ethiopia.” United Nations Development Program, (2018): http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/Country-Profiles/ETH.pdf

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