Identifying a Researchable Problem

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Identifying a Researchable Problem

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One of the most challenging aspects of EBP is to actually identify the answerable question.

—Karen Sue Davies

Course Project: Part 1—Identifying a Researchable Problem

Formulating a question that targets the goal of your research is a challenging but essential task. The question plays a crucial role in all other aspects of the research, including the determination of the research design and theoretical perspective to be applied, which data will be collected, and which tools will be used for analysis. It is therefore essential to take the time to ensure that the research question addresses what you actually want to study. Doing so will increase your likelihood of obtaining meaningful results.

In this first component of the Course Project, you formulate questions to address a particular nursing issue or problem. You use the PICOT model—patient/population, intervention/issue, comparison, and outcome—outlined in the Learning Resources to design your questions.

 

To prepare:

 

Review the article, “Formulating the Evidence Based Practice Question: A Review of the Frameworks,” found in the Learning Resources for this week. Focus on the PICOT model for guiding the development of research questions.

 

Review the section beginning on page 71 of the course text, titled, “Developing and Refining Research Problems” in the course text, which focuses on analyzing the feasibility of a research problem.

Reflect on an issue or problem that you have noticed in your nursing practice. Consider the significance of this issue or problem.

 

Generate at least five questions that relate to the issue which you have identified. Use the criteria in your course text to select one question that would be most appropriate in terms of significance, feasibility, and interest. Be prepared to explain your rationale.

 

Formulate a preliminary PICO question—one that is answerable—based on your analysis. What are the PICO variables (patient/population, intervention/issue, comparison, and outcome) for this question?

Note: Not all of these variables may be appropriate to every question. Be sure to analyze which are and are not relevant to your specific question.

Using the PICOT variables that you determined for your question, develop a list of at least 10 keywords that could be used when conducting a literature search to investigate current research pertaining to the question.

 

To complete:

 

Write a 3- to 4-page paper that includes the following:

A summary of your area of interest, an identification of the problem that you have selected, and an explanation of the significance of this problem for nursing practice

The 5 questions you have generated and a description of how you analyzed them for feasibility

Your preliminary PICOT question and a description of each PICOT variable relevant to your question

At least 10 possible keywords that could be used when conducting a literature search for your PICOT question and a rationale for your selections

 

Reference:

 

 

Davies, K. S. (2011). Formulating the evidence based practice question: A review of the frameworks. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 6(2), 75–80. Retrieved from https://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/EBLIP/article/viewFile/9741/8144

 

Required Readings

 

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2017). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (10th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.

Chapter 2, “Evidence-Based Nursing: Translating Research Evidence into Practice” (Review pages 14–31)

Chapter 5, “Literature Reviews: Finding and Critiquing Evidence”

In this chapter, you focus on conducting a literature review. Topics include how to identify the relevant literature on a given topic and then how to critique the strengths and weaknesses of the literature that you have found. Finally, the chapter examines how to synthesize the research findings into a written literature review.

Houde, S. C. (2009). The systematic review of literature: A tool for evidence-based policy. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 35(9), 9–12.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

 

This article emphasizes the importance of systematic reviews of literature. The authors present an overview of resources that may assist in conducting systematic reviews.

Krainovich-Miller, B., Haber, J., Yost, J., & Jacobs, S. K. (2009). Evidence-based practice challenge: Teaching critical appraisal of systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines to graduate students. Journal of Nursing Education, 48(4), 186–195.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

 

This article reviews the features of the TREAD Evidence-Based Practice Model. In particular, the authors of this article stress how the model emphasizes the use of standardized critical appraisal tools and Level I evidence.

Robeson, P., Dobbins, M., DeCorby, K., & Tirilis, D. (2010). Facilitating access to pre-processed research evidence in public health. BMC Public Health, 10, 95.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

 

This article describes a hierarchy of pre-processed evidence and how it is adapted to the public health setting. The authors identify a range of resources with relevant public health content.

Walden Student Center for Success. (2012). Clinical Question Anatomy. Retrieved July 9, 2014, from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/content.php?pid=183871&sid=2950360

Barker, J. (n.d.) Basic search tips and advanced Boolean explained. Retrieved August 3, 2012, from http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/Internet/Boolean.pdf

 

This resource provides a graphical representation of different approaches to research and gives examples of each.

Davies, K. S. (2011). Formulating the evidence based practice question: A review of the frameworks. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 6(2), 75–80. Retrieved from https://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/EBLIP/article/viewFile/9741/8144

 

This article reviews the frameworks commonly used to assist in generating answerable research questions. The author recommends considering the individual elements of the frameworks as interchangeable (depending upon the situation), rather than trying to fit a situation to a specific framework.

Walden University Library. (2012). Levels of evidence. Retrieved from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/c.php?g=80240&p=523225

 

This guide provides a listing of evidence-based clinical resources, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses, critically appraised topics, background information and expert opinions, and unfiltered resources.

Indiana State University. (n.d.). Database search strategies. Retrieved July 6, 2012, from http://libguides.indstate.edu/content.php?pid=118904&sid=1065428

 

In this resource, the most common types of database searches are highlighted. It includes topics such as nesting searches, phrase searches, and using synonyms of key words in the search.

Library of Congress Online Catalog. (2008). Boolean searching. Retrieved from http://catalog.loc.gov/help/boolean.htm

 

This web page provides a basic overview of Boolean searches and provides simple examples of key search terms.

Walden University. (n.d.b.). Searching and retrieving materials in the research databases. Retrieved August 10, 2012, from http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/foundationscoursedocs/SearchingRetrieving

 

This resource provides tips for searching in the Walden Library. It includes a guide to keyword searches, an explanation of Boolean searches, and tips on locating specific journals or articles.

Document: Course Project Overview (Word document)

 

Note: You will use this document to complete the Project throughout this course.

Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2012e). Finding resources for EBP. Baltimore, MD: Author.

 

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 6 minutes.

 

In this video, Dr. Marianne Chulay identifies sources where nurses can find evidence to support their practices. She provides several examples of resources that provide specific information about best practices in health care.

 

 

Accessible player

Laureate Education (Producer). (2012f). Finding sources of evidence. Baltimore, MD: Author.

 

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 9 minutes.

 

Dr. Kristen Mauk explains the process of performing a literature review in this video. She provides advice for nursing students in browsing databases and analyzing sources of evidence.

 

 

Accessible player

Laureate Education (Producer). (2012g). Hierarchy of evidence pyramid. Baltimore, MD: Author.

 

This multimedia piece explains the hierarchy of evidence pyramid. The piece offers definitions and key information for each level of the pyramid.

 

 

DO 4 Pages Please. Complete.

NURS 5052/NURS 6052: Essentials of Evidence-Based Practice

Course Project Overview

Evidence-based practice involves a great deal more than simply reading nursing periodicals on a regular basis. Nurses can take a more proactive approach to evidence-based practice by identifying authentic problems and concerns, and then using that to guide their inquiries into current research. In this way, nurses can connect the results of relevant research studies to their nursing practice.

For the Course Project, you identify and apply relevant research to a specific nursing topic or problem. You begin by formulating an answerable question that is relevant to nursing and evidence-based practice. In later weeks of this course, you continue the course project by conducting a literature review and then determining how the evidence from the literature can be applied to nursing practice.

Before you begin, review this document, which contains information about all three parts of the Course Project.

Note: This Course Project will serve as the Portfolio Assignment for the course. In addition to submitting portions of this Project in Weeks 2 and 5, you will turn in all three deliverables in Week 10.

Course Project: Part 1–Identifying a Researchable Problem

One of the most challenging aspects of EBP is to actually identify the answerable question. —Karen Sue Davies

Formulating a question that targets the goal of your research is a challenging but essential task. The question plays a crucial role in all other aspects of the research, including the determination of the research design and theoretical perspective to be applied, which data will be collected, and which tools will be used for analysis. It is therefore essential to take the time to ensure that the research question addresses what you actually want to study. Doing so will increase the likelihood of obtaining meaningful results.

In this first component of the course project, you formulate questions to address a particular nursing issue or problem. You use the PICOT model—patient/population, intervention/issue, comparison, and outcome—outlined in the weekly Learning Resources to design your questions.

To prepare:

· Review the article, “Formulating the Evidence Based Practice Question: A Review of the Frameworks,” found in the Learning Resources for Week 2. Focus on the PICOT model for guiding the development of research questions.

· Review the section beginning on page of the course text, 75 titled, “Developing and Refining Research Problems” in the course text, which focuses on analyzing the feasibility of a research problem.

· Reflect on an issue or problem that you have noticed in your nursing practice. Consider the significance of this issue or problem.

· Generate at least 5 questions that relate to the issue that you have identified. Use the criteria in your course text to select one question that would be most appropriate in terms of significance, feasibility, and interest. Be prepared to explain your rationale.

· Formulate a preliminary PICOT question—one that is answerable—based on your analysis. What are the PICOT variables (patient/population, intervention/issue, comparison, and outcome) for this question? Note: Not all of these variables may be appropriate to every question. Be sure to analyze which are and are not relevant to your specific question.

· Using the PICOT variables that you determined for your question, develop a list of at least 10 keywords that could be used when conducting a literature search to investigate current research pertaining to the question.

To complete:

Write a 3- to 4-page paper that includes the following:

· A summary of your area of interest, an identification of the problem that you have selected, and an explanation of the significance of this problem for nursing practice

· The 5 questions that you have generated, and a description of how you analyzed them for feasibility

· Your preliminary PICOT question and a description of each PICOT variable relevant to your question

· At least 10 possible keywords that could be used when conducting a literature search for your PICOT question and a rationale for your selections

Part 1 of the Course Project is due by Day 7 of Week 2. It will also be a component of your Portfolio Assignment for this course, which is due by Day 7 of Week 10.

Reference: Davies, K. S. (2011). Formulating the evidence based practice question: A review of the frameworks. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 6(2), 75–80. Retrieved from https://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/EBLIP/article/viewFile/9741/8144

Course Project: Part 2—Literature Review

The literature review is a critical piece in the research process because it helps a researcher determine what is currently known about a topic and identify gaps or further questions. Conducting a thorough literature review can be a time-consuming process, but the effort helps establish the foundation for everything that will follow. For this part of your Course Project, you will conduct a brief literature review to find information on the question that you developed in Week 2. This will provide you with experience in searching databases and identifying applicable resources.

To prepare:

· Review the information in Chapter 5 of the course text, focusing on the steps for conducting a literature review and for compiling your findings.

· Using the question that you selected in your Week 2 Project (Part 1 of the Course Project), locate 5 or more full-text research articles that are relevant to your PICOT question. Include at least 1 systematic review and 1 integrative review if possible. Use the search tools and techniques mentioned in your readings this week to enhance the comprehensiveness and objectivity of your review. You may gather these articles from any appropriate source, but make sure at least 3 of these articles are available as full-text versions through Walden Library’s databases.

· Read through the articles carefully. Eliminate studies that are not appropriate and add others to your list as needed. Although you may include more, you are expected to include a minimum of five articles. Complete a literature review summary table using the Literature Review Summary Table Template located in this week’s Learning Resources.

· Prepare to summarize and synthesize the literature using the information on writing a literature review found in Chapter 5 of the course text.

To complete:

Develop a 2- to 3-page literature review that includes the following:

· A synthesis of what the studies reveal about the current state of knowledge on the question that you developed

· Point out inconsistencies and contradictions in the literature and offer possible explanations for inconsistencies.

· Preliminary conclusions on whether the evidence provides strong support for a change in practice or whether further research is needed to adequately address your inquiry

· Your literature review summary table with all references formatted in correct APA style. Identifying a Researchable Problem

Note: Certain aspects of conducting a standard review of literature have not yet been covered in this course. Therefore, while you are invited to critically examine any aspect of the studies (e.g., a study’s design, appropriateness of the theoretic framework, data sampling methods), your conclusion should be considered preliminary. Bear in mind that five studies are typically not enough to reflect the full range of knowledge on a particular question and you are not expected to be familiar enough with research methodology to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of all aspects of the studies.

Part 2 of the Course Project is due by Day 7 of Week 5. It will also be a component in your portfolio assignment in this course, which is due by Day 7 of Week 10. Identifying a Researchable Problem

Course Project Part 3 – Translating Evidence Into Practice

Now that you have located available research on your PICOT question, you will examine what the research indicates about nursing practices. Connecting research evidence and findings to actual decisions and tasks that nurses complete in their daily practice is essentially what evidence-based practice is all about. This final component of the Course Project asks you to translate the evidence and data from your literature review into authentic practices that can be adopted to improve health care outcomes. In addition, you will also consider possible methods and strategies for disseminating evidence-based practices to your colleagues and to the broader health care field.

To prepare:

· Consider Parts 1 and 2 of your Course Project. How does the research address your PICOT question?

· With your PICOT question in mind, identify at least one nursing practice that is supported by the evidence in two or more of the articles from your literature review. Consider what the evidence indicates about how this practice contributes to better outcomes.

· Explore possible consequences of failing to adopt the evidence-based practice that you identified.

· Consider how you would disseminate information about this evidence-based practice throughout your organization or practice setting. How would you communicate the importance of the practice?

To complete:

In a 3- to 4-page paper: Identifying a Researchable Problem

· Restate your PICOT question and its significance to nursing practice. Identifying a Researchable Problem

· Summarize the findings from the articles that you selected for your literature review. Describe at least one nursing practice that is supported by the evidence in the articles. Justify your response with specific references to at least 2 of the articles.

· Explain how the evidence-based practice that you identified contributes to better outcomes. In addition, identify potential negative outcomes that could result from failing to use the evidence-based practice.

· Outline the strategy for disseminating the evidence-based practice that you identified throughout your practice setting. Explain how you would communicate the importance of the practice to your colleagues. Describe how you would move from disseminating the information to implementing the evidence-based practice within your organization. How would you address concerns and opposition to the change in practice?

Part 3 of the Course Project is due by Day 7 of Week 10. It should be combined with the other two components of the Course Project and turned in as your Portfolio Assignment for this course. Note: In addition, include a 1-page summary of your project.

For this final iteration you will need to:

· Submit your paper to Grammarly and Turnitin through the Walden Writing Center. Based on the Grammarly and Turnitin reports, revise your paper as necessary.

· Reminder: The School of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The School of Nursing Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available from the Walden University website found in this week’s Learning Resources). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Note: The Course Project will be your Portfolio Assignment for this course.

© 2016 Laureate Education Inc. 2


ASSIMILATION AND SYNTHESIS OF IDEAS 2. Apply and integrate material in course resources (i.e. video, required readings, and textbook) and credible outside resources (0-20 Points)

20 to 20 points

Demonstrates and applies exceptional support of major points and integrates 2 or more credible outside sources, in addition to 3-4 course resources to support point of view.

15 to 19 points

Demonstrates and applies exceptional support of major points and integrates 2 or more credible outside sources, in addition to 3-4 course resources to support point of view. Identifying a Researchable Problem

10 to 14 points

Integrates specific information from 1 credible outside resource and 3 to 4 course resources to support major points and point of view.

3 to 9 points

Minimally includes and integrates specific information from 2-3 resources to support major points and point of view.

0 to 2 points

Includes and integrates specific information from 0 to 1 resource to support major points and point of view.

ASSIMILATION AND SYNTHESIS OF IDEAS 3. Synthesize (combines various components or different ideas into a new whole) material in course resources (i.e. video, required readings, and textbook) by comparing different points of view and highlighting similarities, differences, and connections. (0-20 Points)

20 to 20 points

Synthesizes and justifies (defends, explains, validates, confirms) information gleaned from sources to support major points presented. Applies meaning to the field of advanced nursing practice. Identifying a Researchable Problem

18 to 19 points

Synthesizes and justifies (defends, explains, validates, confirms) information gleaned from sources to support major points presented. Applies meaning to the field of advanced nursing practice.

16 to 17 points

Summarizes information gleaned from sources to support major points, but does not synthesize.

14 to 15 points

Identifies but does not interpret or apply concepts, and/or strategies correctly; ideas unclear and/or underdeveloped.

0 to 13 points

Rarely or does not interpret, apply, and synthesize concepts, and/or strategies.

WRITTEN EXPRESSION AND FORMATTING 1. Paragraph and Sentence Structure: Paragraphs make clear points that support well developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are clearly structured and carefully focused–neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. (0-5 Points) Identifying a Researchable Problem

5 to 5 points

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards.

5 to 5 points

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards.

4 to 4 points

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards 80% of the time.

3 to 3 points

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards 70% of the time.

0 to 2 points

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards < 70% of the time.

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