Literature Review Draft HLT 317V

Literature Review Draft HLT 317V
In this assignment, you will select your final topic using the information you prepared in the “Identification of a Research Topics” assignment and create a literature review. To complete this assignment, do the following:
Select one of the three topics from the “Identification of a Research Topic” assignment. Managing the health care needs of an aging population
Utilizing the GCU library, locate three additional articles that will complement and support your specific topic of interest.
In a 1,500-2,000-word paper, utilizing the research process, (refer to your text, Understanding Research) include the following:
1. An introduction to the topic.
2. An explanation of how the literature review is used in research.
3. A discussion of the ethical considerations for data collection.
4. An explanation of what the data reveals in terms of statistical analysis.
5. An evaluation of whether there is enough information to make a decision on the effectiveness of the specific study.
6. A summary of the conclusions from the literature review.
NOTE: Do not submit the assignment to the instructor. Post your rough draft to the Peer Review Forum in Topic 3. You should label your paper with your first name and last name (e.g., Karen Palmer’s Paper).
Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.


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Sample Answer



Managing the healthcare needs of the aging population is vital in averting premature mortality rates within the healthcare system. According to WHO (2019), addressing the health care needs of the elderly is more complex as the one develops a declining capacity and increased possibility of having chronic diseases. According to Ragland et al., (2019), the U.S population is projected to comprise 20% of individuals aged 65 years and above by 2050. With this, there is a need to address the healthcare needs of the aging population as the current medical system is straining, and projected demand with significantly lower its efficiency. As a result, there would be increased adverse implications on the budget as the aging population will create stress on the healthcare systems. With this, the healthcare system needs to be transformed to guarantee that affordable access to evidence-based medical intervention that responds to the needs of older people has been attained.

Literature Review

Literature review entails an all-inclusive summary of the preceding research on the topic under assessment. A literature review is essential while researching as it demonstrates how the projected research is associated with the prior research as well as showing the inventiveness of the research problem. The literature review is created to provide a groundwork of the topic by establishing the gaps in the study as well as avoid replication.

In relation to managing the healthcare needs of the aging population, the study will review three studies that have been conducted on older people by different authors across the healthcare industry.


Article 1: Morton, S. (2015). Addressing the Health Needs of an Aging America: New Opportunities for Evidence-Based Policy Solutions. Health Policy Institute at the University of Pittsburgh.

The article will be significantly used in developing the research problem as it provides the gaps that have not been addressed in its conclusion concerning future research.  According to Morton (2015), areas such as policy-focused systematic reviews to identify timely interventions that effectively will improve the cost and the quality of health care has been addressed. Secondly, pilot studies on the cutting-edge interventions that could lower the utilization cost and improve healthcare have not been resolved. Thirdly, modeling of policy options to demonstrate the impacts of evidence-based policy selections on long-standing socioeconomic trends affecting providers and patients has not to be reviewed. Finally, addressing the dissemination of policy recommendations based on the rigorous evidence to a broad range of policy stakeholders at multiple levels of government has not be established.

The article will also be utilized to provide a framework for developing the proposed projects as it incorporates a wide range of data generated from its meta-analysis nature. Through this project, the researcher will be able to integrate only data that has been provided since 2014, enhancing the project to being updated with the recent recorded demographic figures. Besides, the study offers an account of areas in which actionable, evidence-based strategies are possible.

Article 2: Ragland, D. R., MacLeod, K. E., McMillan, T., Doggett, S., & Felschundneff, G. (2019). Assessing and Addressing the Mobility Needs of an Aging Population.

The article will be used in the research to help in examining and addressing the mobility needs of the elderly as well as creating future analysis that will assess enhancement requests of the aging in place needs by sociodemographic physiognomies. Besides, the study will provide an opportunity for the researcher to consider not only age and gender but also supplementary analysis to show mobility options are also inadequate in some regions and to some demographic groups. Besides, the article will serve a source also as it utilizes recent data to create a model that can be matched when the arrangement for an aged population with exclusive passage needs and challenges are considered.

Article 3: McPake, B., & Mahal, A. (2017). Addressing the needs of an aging population in the health system: The Australian case. Health Systems & Reform3(3), 236-247.

The article will be utilized the proposed research project to help in showing the variation in the approaches that both the U.S and Australia are working on to improve their healthcare systems. In developing a contrast about the U.S and Australia, the projected study will be able to identify the drawbacks experienced in the studies to create a more succinct review that will help in providing solutions for the future. This can be through developing a proposal to address aspects such as affordability of consumers and taxpayers, eligibility for individuals in acquiring insurance, healthcare coverage, and access. The article will also help in assessing the effectiveness of some of the healthcare interventions utilized in both countries as well as identifying appropriate healthcare policies suitable for the aged population.

Ethical Considerations

Ethical considerations are vital while researching as they assist researchers in conducting their study under stipulated guidelines. In this relation, the researcher will consider some moral principles while handling the aged population when collecting and analyzing their data to avoid violating the regulation that has been laid out.  Some of the ethical considerations when collecting data are informed consent, beneficence, anonymity, and confidentiality, as well as respect for privacy.

Informed consent as an ethical consideration in research implies that a person has willingly or perceptively agreed in a clear and apparent way to partake a study (West, 2019). With this, individual autonomy rights are protected as principle shields an individual from assaults on their integrity while advancing their liberty and veracity. In this relation, when handling the aged population, the researcher will need to inform the participants about their intention about the study and, therefore, should not coerce anyone to take the survey. Besides, the researcher should be aware that participants have the right to quit their participation, which is most likely to be experienced in the aging population as most of them are worried and do not comprehend the need for a survey.

Secondly, observing beneficence as a tenet in ethical consideration is of great importance as a researcher should be of benefit and not harm to the participants (West, 2019). The aspects are vital when dealing with the aged population as they are vulnerable to all kinds of infections, injuries, or diseases that may be contracted while conducting the survey. For instance, the researcher should avoid surveying patients aged 65 years and above on smooth or slippery surfaces. Slippery surfaces often expose the elderly to higher risks of falling, which results in injuries, fractures, head injuries, and at times untimely deaths. Besides, the researcher needs to be aware of the health condition of the participant before taking their surveys as the aged population is more vulnerable or at great risk of deteriorating their health.

Thirdly, addressing anonymity is crucial as it ensures that participants’ distinctiveness can not be linked to personal replies. In contrast, confidentiality ensures that study participants are free to give and reserve as much information they wish to choose (West, 2019). The aspect of anonymity is vital while analyzing data as individual responses should be not be traced back to the participants. In this case, the researcher should ensure that the aged population’s personal information can not be used as a bias to overrule their wishes.

Respect for privacy as a principle in ethics ensures that the study participants have the liberty to limit the time, scope, and the general situations under which their secluded information can be shared or withheld from others. This principle provides the researcher with no mandate to share any participant information with the public as it may result in gross misconduct. With this, researchers surveying older people should ensure that their prospective subjects have been protected from public scrutiny.

Statistical Analysis

Statistical analysis refers to a discipline of gathering, establishing, discovering, interpreting, and presenting data and unearthing patterns and tendencies. Statistical analysis is crucial as it enables researchers to analyze the primary data to generate findings that used n making conclusions and recommendations. According to Guetterman (2019), primary data collection is essential as equips quantitative research with closed and open-ended data in the form of numbers, which is analyzed to create numerical data to address the research question and test the hypothesis.

The evaluation of data helps in revealing inferential statistics that recognizes the relationship between different variables used in a sample population while making conclusions, overviews, and predictions about the entire population. By selecting a considerable number of sizes, researchers should be able to test hypotheses while generating inferences about their studies from their collected data. In this relation, researchers should understand that increasing the sample allows them to increase the significance level of findings rendering their work to be more accurate as errors are minimized. Besides, larger sample sizes help in attaining correct values as outliers can be easily identified hence reduced margin of error.

The primary data used in research also helps in revealing descriptive statistics that aggregate data that are grouped into variables to assess typical values and the spread of values for each variable in a data set (Guetterman, 2019). With this, the primary data helps in revealing the measures of central tendencies, measures of variability as well as provide indicators of the distribution of data. The distribution of data in descriptive analysis helps in the identification of dependent and independent variables that help in predicting of extrapolated values.

Evaluation on Effectiveness

In the evaluation of information to make decisions on the effectiveness of the specific study, the researcher will utilize the inferential statistics developed from primary data obtained from the primary techniques of data collection. Utilizing questionnaires and interview with an aging population would be effective in meeting the objectives of the study, which entails developing a solution or creating a health care gap that needs to be addressed with the elderly. According to Ashby & Beech (2015), refocusing the imminent need for providing quality care for older persons with higher precision on dignity and good health could help in determining whether related studies are relevant to the topic. In this relation, the study would be significant if it helps in generating evidence-based solutions to the health care needs of an aging population.

Reviewing issues such as the study approval by the IRB can assist in cementing the study analysis as ethical considerations have been maintained to ensure that healthcare procedures and policies have been attained. With this, researchers can be able to adopt secondary data that has been provided by healthcare organizations to create spectacular solutions to the multiple healthcare issues affecting the aged.



The article by Morton (2015), reviews the existing systematic studies to scan the research articles from across the entire domain of published biomedical and health services literature to apprehend all healthcare interventions associated with the older adults and aim to reduce the cost while maintaining and improving quality of care. The article by McPake & Mahal (2017), develops the study as it provides an Australian experience on the need of aligning financial incentives in a mixed public-private healthcare and financing systems. Aligning the healthcare systems helps in lowering the health-related cost of burdens in an aging population by developing universal health coverage.

Finally, the study by Ragland et al., (2019) provides the research with an assessment of aging trends and mobility demands, consequences of limited mobility, factors in maintaining current mobility, improvements needed to enhance mobility, and the potential for emerging mobility options. This is relevant to the study as it propels the rationale of managing the healthcare conditions of the elderly by facilitating their movements. In this regard, developing the research requires the one to comprehensively examine existing works of literature to develop a solution to an emerging trend in the management of aging population healthcare needs.


Ashby, S. M., & Beech, R. (2015). Addressing the Healthcare Needs of an Ageing Population The Need for an Integrated Solution. International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine and Public Health8(4), 268-271.

Guetterman, T. C. (2019). Basics of statistics for primary care research. Family medicine and community health7(2).

McPake, B., & Mahal, A. (2017). Addressing the needs of an aging population in the health system: The Australian case. Health Systems & Reform3(3), 236-247.

Morton, S. (2015). Addressing the Health Needs of an Aging America: New Opportunities for Evidence-Based Policy Solutions. Health Policy Institute at the University of Pittsburgh.

Ragland, D. R., MacLeod, K. E., McMillan, T., Doggett, S., & Felschundneff, G. (2019). Assessing and Addressing the Mobility Needs of an Aging Population.

West, E. (2019). Ethics and Integrity in Nursing Research. Handbook of Research Ethics and Scientific Integrity. Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.

WHO. (2019). Aging and Life-Course. Health Systems that meet the ends of older people. Retrieved from:

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