Patterns of Essay development part 5


  • The length of this assignment is 1,500 to 1,750 words
  • Explain the importance of considering English as a Second Language when considering your audience for an essay.
  • Explain what makes the development of an argument essay different from other essays. Explain the main strategies for developing an argument essay.
  • Refer to “Writing Assignment #1” beginning on page 384 of the textbook. Write an argumentation essay as outlined in the assignment.
  • Read the student essays beginning on page 351 and then answer the questions starting on page 354 of the textbook.


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Sample Answer


Patterns of Essay Development

Importance of Considering English as a Second Language When Considering Audience

English as a Second Language (ESL) refers to when non-native speakers of English utilize the language in an environment where English is the primary language of communication. Firstly, the writer must consider ESL when contemplating the audience of their writing because they will have an opportunity to improve the clarity of their work. Factoring in ESL into the audience will compel the writer to use simple and clear language to improve the clarity of the writing to increase the comprehension of the ESL audience (Stalnaker, 2005). Therefore, the writer will avoid using complex vocabulary or phrases that could confuse the ESL audience and hamper the effectiveness of the writing. While the ESL audience may have a grasp of English, they may lack knowledge of complex vocabulary which will curtail effective communication.

When considering an ESL audience, the writer should take into consideration the choice of words to improve the effectiveness of their writing. Some English words tend to have more than one meaning. The words can also mean different things to a diverse audience. An individual in the ESL audience may only know one meaning of the word which may not be the meaning that the writer intended to convey to the audience. Furthermore, some words can have different meanings in different vocabularies. As such, the writer must ensure that their work is easy to follow and understand by choosing words that are appropriate and have a low possibility of confusing the ESL audience. Therefore, the writer will avoid words that have multiple meanings that could be misconstrued by the audience. Moreover, the writer should avoid using words that have different meanings in other vocabularies.

It is important to consider the ESL audience because it will guide the writer’s use of idioms, colloquial expressions and slang (Stalnaker, 2005). The writer should minimize their use of idioms and colloquial expressions because the ESL audience may lack knowledge of those expressions or they may misinterpret those expressions and thereby get the wrong message from the text. There is the possibility that the ESL audience could interpret the idioms and colloquial expressions literally. As such, the use of idioms and colloquial expressions when writing for an ESL audience can hamper compression and sabotage the writer’s intended message. The writer should also avoid using slang because such words are likely to be misinterpreted by the ESL audience who probably have never heard the words of lack knowledge of their proper meaning. Such considerations will allow the writer to communicate effectively with the ESL audience.

It is important for the writer to consider the ESL audience in order to show more sensitivity to the cultural and linguistic diversity among the audience. By taking into account the ESL audience, the writer will communicate in a way that avoids demeaning other cultures. The writer will avoid making comparisons that could arouse the animosity of the audience. As such, the writer will ensure that their writing is respectful of the ESL audience. Therefore, considering the ESL audience is important because it improves the effectiveness of the writing.

Development of an Argument Essay

In an argument essay, the writer seeks to defend a specific position where there is a difference of opinion on the matter. The development of an argument essay is different from other essays because the writer aims to convince the audience that their stance about a particular issue is valid or correct (Langan & Albright, 2018). As such, when developing an argument essay, the writer needs to provide main points and back those points with evidence. The development of an argument essay differs from other essays because the writer needs to consider the position or attitude of the audience towards the issue. In this way, the writer has an opportunity to develop a more persuasive argument essay.

There are five strategies for developing an argument essay. The first strategy is to use tactful, courteous language. Under this strategy, the writer avoids belittling the opinions of people who hold a contrary opinion or using rude terms (Langan & Albright, 2018). The writer is expected to avoid making generalizations about people but instead focus on the specific issue under discussion. The writer also presents people with differing opinion as reasonable people who are open to different views. The second strategy is pointing out common ground. This strategy requires the writer to consider the opinions shared with the reader. The writer points out the areas of the issue that all sides of the issue agree with. The reader will be more receptive of the writer’s argument when the writer points out how they all think alike and share similar opinions.

The third strategy is acknowledging differing viewpoints. By acknowledging the differing viewpoints, the writer has an opportunity to spot flaws in the arguments of the opposing side as well as flaws in their own argument. Viewing all side of the issue shows that the writer is a reasonable person who is willing to consider an issue from all perspectives. The writer will ensure that they acknowledge those opposing viewpoints in the text, either in the introduction or the body of the essay (Langan & Albright, 2018). The third technique is to grant the merits of the differing viewpoints when appropriate. The writer is expected to admit the merits of valid points in the opposing argument. Accepting those merits increases the writer’s credibility and also allows them to make a case for why their line of argument is stronger. The fifth and final strategy is rebutting the differing opinions. The writer may take the opportunity to rebut the opposing opinions by pointing out the flaws or problems with those views. The writer can presents all the opposing arguments and present counterarguments or present each opposing argument with a corresponding rebuttal.

Argument Essay: Extend Unemployment Benefits

In the Baltimore Sun editorial of June 29, 2020 titled “Congress must extend unemployment insurance benefits”, the editor makes a case for expanding unemployment benefits due to the current economic climate. The editorial argues that Congress should extend unemployment benefits to provide a safety net for millions of citizens.  Write this letter to offer my firm support for the extension of unemployment insurance benefits to revamp the economy, cushion millions of citizens from the tough economic times and to help people who have abruptly lost their jobs due to the Covid-19 pandemic.

Firstly, Congress should extend unemployment insurance benefits because it will help to revamp the economy and spark economic growth. Due to the coronavirus pandemic, many business have been crippled financially. Consequently, many businesses have reported heavy losses due to a dwindling revenue stream since fewer customer are visiting their business premises. Expanding the unemployment insurance benefits will revamp the economy by extending money to people who have lost income. In this way, millions of people across America will have money to spend across a wide range of businesses which will, in turn, revive those businesses and prevent their collapse under the current harsh economic conditions. As such, unemployment benefits can help to sustain business and revive the economy.

I support the expansion of unemployment insurance benefits because it will cushion millions of citizens from the tough economic times. The coronavirus pandemic has led to an economic downturn that is expected to get worse. The reported economic downturn spells hardships for millions of families across the US. The people who are at the highest risk are low-income families and minority communities. Extending the unemployment benefits will ensure that millions of families across the country have the financial resources to fulfill their basic needs such as food, water, and housing. In this way, the unemployment benefit will prevent millions of people, especially from vulnerable and disadvantaged demographic groups, from sinking into dire economic situations that will cause distress for them and their children.

Thirdly, I support the editorial because extending the unemployment insurance benefits will provide assistance to people who have lost their jobs due to the coronavirus pandemic. The economic effects of the coronavirus pandemic have causes many companies across the US to lay off some workers in an attempt to stay afloat.  Subsequently, millions of people who had jobs a few months ago have suddenly been rendered jobless. The loss of income has been devastating for those people as some face poverty and homelessness. Currently, the only hope for such people is the unemployment benefits which allow them to sustain their lives and access basic necessities. As such, it is crucial and even necessary to extend the unemployment insurance benefits to protect people who have lost their jobs until the economy picks up and jobs become available again.

People with a differing opinion state that while the unemployment insurance benefits are helpful, Congress should not extend the benefits since such a move will increase the burden on the government and lead to an increase in taxation. They argue that the increase in taxation could hinder economic growth for years to come.  While this is a valid point, it is more critical to safeguard people who have been affected by the unexpected economic crisis caused by coronavirus. Extending the insurance benefits will prevent millions of families from falling into poverty. As such, protecting at-risk populations now is a more critical issues that the anticipated rise in taxes.

In conclusion, I strongly agree with the main argument of the editorial and offer support for the extension of unemployment insurance benefits. The unemployment benefits will help to revamp the economy and start economic revival. Extending the unemployment benefits will cushion millions of families from economic ruin and most importantly provide financial assistance to people who have lost their jobs due to the coronavirus pandemic.

Answers to Essay Questions

  1. The second paragraph.
  2. “Mall managers to have obviously made a decision to…”
  3. “The best way to learn about documentaries is through documentaries…”
  4. “Then they wander into furniture departments in the large mall stores.”
  5. The fourth paragraph of “What to Watch” lacks sufficient specific details.
  6. Sensory details.
  7. Hearing (sound) the music of the antique carousel housed there, Jenny begs to ride her favorite pony with its shining (sight) golden mane.
  8. Shouting (hearing), “I’m starving!” Fred, Jr., drags the family towards the food court, where he detects the seductive odor (smell) of pizza.
  9. Mom walks (sight) through a fabric store, running her hand over the soft (touch) velvet and slippery (touch)
  10. First, then, and finally.
  11. “Not all Netflix viewers want to watch romantic movies…”
  12. (a). Broad, general statement narrowing to a thesis.
  13. (a). Summary.




Baltimore Sun Editorial Board (2020). Congress must extend unemployment insurance benefits | COMMENTARY. Retrieved from:

Langan, J. & Albright, Z. (2018). College Writing Skills with Readings (10th Ed.). McGraw Hill Education.

Stalnaker, C. (2005). Dos and Don’ts in Speaking to ESL Audiences. Retrieved from:

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