Running head Outline Template
Most medical research studies are intended at solving a medical issue that affect human
beings. The focus on medical issues that affect human beings, tends to prompt researchers to use
human subjects in their medical research studies. According to the DHHS (U.S. department of
health and human services), a human subjects is a living individual whom a researcher uses to
obtain data via interventions or by interacting with the individual. The use of human subjects in
research gives rise to several ethical issues (King, 2018). Mandal et al. (2014), asserts that
human subjects tend to be exposed to significant risks due to the fact that there is always a high
possibility that a scientifically unproven intervention will go wrong. In this paper, arguments in
support of human subjects in medical research as well as arguments against the use of human
subjects in research will be discussed to shed light not only on the risks human subjects are
exposed to, but also the benefits of using human subjects in medical research.
II. Body Paragraph 1 – Technical aspects of using human subjects in medical
a. Topic Sentence: Several ethical concerns relating to such values as bodily
integrity, dignity, autonomy as well as privacy arise when a researcher is conducting a medical
research that involves participation of human beings.
i. Supporting detail 1: autonomy of Human subjects who are unable to offer a
researcher informed consent, such as patients suffering from a mental illness, is stripped off
when they are involved in a medical research.
ii. Supporting detail 2: Medical research exposes human subjects to both physical
and psychological risks that may have a negative impact on their bodily integrity.
iii. Supporting detail 3: In instances where researchers have no other choice but to
expose the identity of human subjects, then privacy issues will arise.
III. Body Paragraph 2 – Description of public policy debates surrounding the use of
human subjects in medical research
a. Transition: The ethical concerns associated with the use of human subjects in
medical research have resulted in public policy debates about whether medical researchers
should be allowed to use human subjects or not.
b. Topic Sentence: public opinions are divided when it comes to the use of human
subjects in medical research.
i. Supporting detail 1: according to Wikler (2017), those in favor of using human
subjects in medical research point to the fact that the good outweighs the negative impacts of
using human subjects in research.
ii. Supporting detail 2: those in favor of using human subjects emphasize on the need
for ethical principles to be adhered to by researchers to mitigate the risks human subjects are
iii. Supporting detail 3: Those who are against the use of human subjects in medical
research, point out the fact that human subjects end up being exposed to countless number of
risks e.g. physical, psychological as well as social risks when they participate in a medical
IV. Body Paragraph 3 -Arguments
a. Transition: Those in favor of using medical research have strong supporting
arguments relating to the benefits of using human subjects in research
b. Topic Sentence: There are several benefits of using human subjects in medical
i. Supporting detail 1: researchers are able to provide a more reliable medical
conclusion when conducting a medical research whose participants are human beings.
ii. Supporting detail 2: recommendations arrived at in a medical research carried
using human subjects can easily be adopted, and thus, making such a research effective during an
iii. Supporting detail 3: when ethical principles are adhered to the latter, potential
risks to human subjects are minimized.
V. Body Paragraph 4 – Arguments
a. Transition: despite strong arguments having been presented in support of the use
of human subjects in medical research, there are those who are against the use of human subjects
in medical research
b. Topic Sentence: Most people are against the use of human subjects in medical
research because of the risks associated being subjected to a medical intervention that is
i. Supporting detail 1: Human subjects may suffer physical injuries during the
implementation of research procedures
ii. Supporting detail 2: Human subjects may suffer psychological harm such as
iii. Supporting detail 3: Human subjects may suffer social harm in terms of negative
effects on their interactions with others.
VI. Opinion and Conclusion
a. Transition: in summary, the ongoing public debates about human subjects in
medical research is of the essence in ensuring that medical researchers should achieve their goals
in research by causing little to no harm to their participants.
b. Statement of Opinion: In my opinion, human subjects should only be used in a
only after a researcher has adhered to the three principles of an ethical research,
which are; minimizing the risk of ham, protecting participant’s anonymity and lastly obtaining
King, N. (2018). Research with Human Subjects: Humility and Deception. IRB: Ethics & Human
Research, 40(2), 12-14. doi: 10.1002/eahr.402004
Mandal, J., & Parija, S. (2014). Ethics of sponsored research. Tropical Parasitology, 4(1), 2. doi:
Wikler, D. (2016). Must research benefit human subjects if it is to be permissible?. Journal Of
Medical Ethics, 43(2), 114-117. doi: 10.1136/medethics-2015-103123
- “Your introduction is missing a thesis statement – Generally the thesis statement is placed as the last sentence in
the introductory paragraph. The thesis statement should give the central argument for the paper. This sentence
does not do that. Please read here about formulating a thesis statement: http://writingcenter.unc.edu/handouts/
A thesis statement should be one sentence in length and should give the main argument that your paper will
“prove” in its course.
You need to give YOUR position as the thesis statement for your papers. The introduction should introduce the
topic, then give both sides of the issue, and lastly give your thesis (your position) and the argument your paper
will prove. Does that make sense?
- “This appears to be a topic statement instead of a real central “argument” for your paper. Remember that your
thesis statement should be a one-sentence argument for your paper. The thesis should be something about your
topic that your paper can “”prove”” in its course. Your thesis statement should be the last sentence in your
- The Technical Aspects section of your paper needs to define practices related to your topic as well as explain the
process of your topic so that an outsider has a strong understanding of your topic. You have a good start here,
but continue developing this section of your paper.
- “The Public Policy section of your paper needs to discuss the evolution of and current state of laws and practices
governing your topic.
You have a good start here but more detail is needed in your outline to describe the history and current state of
public policy. Please continue developing this section of your paper. “
- Arguments should be supported by explanation and discussion of relevant theories/approaches to ethics (Refer
back to week 1 reading). Add more to this to firmly situate your topic within the lens of ethics.
- Term paper should be firmly grounded in course content about ethics. Be sure that your final draft has a strong
explanation of the relevant ethical issues, ethical theory, and a discussion of diverse ethical perspectives related
to your topic.