SCI110 Intro to Physical Science

SCI110 Intro to Physical Science

Solar Panels: Present Status and Future Prospects

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One of the pressing issues that the modern-day nations across the globe, including the United States are facing is the increasing need of renewable energy. It has been acknowledged that the local government in the United States has the potential of dramatically reducing its carbon footprint by directly generating or purchasing electricity from renewable sources that are noted to be clean sources, the most prominent one being solar energy (Alipour et al., 2019). The economic and environmental benefits of using solar energy as the effective renewable energy form includes diversification of energy supply and reduction of dependence on imported fuels, generation of energy producing no greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, and the creation of economic development and jobs in varied sectors.

While awareness is increasing about solar power being one of the most promising renewable energy technologies, adoption of the same is not up-to-the mark (SEIA, 2021). Despite research being carried out about how solar energy is to be harnessed, it has not reached the level of popularity it demands. The underlying reasons for not embracing the solar energy technology are diverse in nature, taking into consideration policies articulated by the government as well as the interest of the public (SEIA, 2021). It is to be commented that despite challenges faced in relation to the efficiency, reliability, and environmental effects of solar energy, the possibilities of using the technology n an extensive manner are not to be underestimated. Various scenarios might be presented as to why solar energy is not being utilized in a rapid manner across the society, but it is for sure that with relevant problem-solving approach much development can be achieved in the future. Use of renewable source of energy has become pivotal in the present times owing to the severe threat of climate change. It is vital that solar energy is utilized to the extent feasible as the benefits to be achieved are profound.

The politics of solar energy is given through the direct involvement of the stakeholders in the government, commercial. Voters have a genuine interest with minimized energy bills since there is a proliferation of electronic devices that increases the electrical demand. Political parties have a focus on the environmental issues e.g., renewable energy in the policies and the strategic plans (Alipour et al., 2019). The county and state programs and initiatives include those with the aim of promotion of the reliable and safe environment. The bilateral agreements advocate for the sustainable development goals e.g., climate change and the Sustainable or Smart cities. The International partner through the humanitarian organizations like the United Nations seek to promote a good working and living conditions through minimizing the effect of global warming and carbon emissions (USEPA, 2021).

The economical aspects of the renewable energies the reliability aspect of such Photovoltaic systems in meeting the energy and business demands. There is a greater detail demand of fossil fuels needed for the effective electricity generation and to make the Photovoltaic system affordable to most people it requires huge funding of Research and Development firms it in the renewable energy (Habib, n.d.). Additionally, affordability of the social classes depends on initiatives or programs arranged by financial institutions to fund the Renewable energy investments. The transport, hospitality, entertainment, and construction industries play a vital part in the global economy. The operations in these industries rely on electrical energy e.g., fueling the but Electric vehicles, powering electrical appliances and machines, supporting heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment (Qazi et al., 2019). Other ways include through governmental or non-governmental initiated actions e.g., through subsidies, incentives. The fact that solar operates by harvesting the potential from the sun makes it viable for consumers to decrease their direct costs related to energy bills for both commercial and residential applications. The private sector has a direct involvement through the service and manufacturing investments in solar energy (Alipour et al., 2019). Finally, there are huge economic costs associated with the environmental degradation owed to the consumption of fossil fuels.
Solar energy strategies

The strategical aspect of solar energy involves the various plans by the immediate stakeholders. These activities include the measures of carbon emissions for the measures of energy conservation, plus the power management, maintenance, operations, design and financing process. The evaluation of the most promising energy opportunities is a factor important to organizations since it affects the entrepreneurial and technical objectives. Also it includes the research, recommendation and implementation of different seamless projects as part of the projects installation to its commissioning (SEIA, 2021). Another tactical move is the development of the solar that allows the gain control of particular prices of energy plus the minimization of power consumed in both on-site and off-site renewable power generation plants. Finally, there is the aspect of lessening the stress imposed on the electrical grid through development of efficient tools.

The technical environment of renewable environment includes the modules and component used in developing the complete photovoltaic system. These are the Sun-Panel exchange elements; weather, seasons, shading and latitude information. The photovoltaics’ technology efficiency, heat and age (Alipour et al., 2019). Additionally, it extends to the string configuration elements; Number of strings (Voltage sags vs Inverter operational range, panels per strings. Finally, is the Grid-Tie monitoring system that includes the Grid and Line parameters plus the contributing losses e.g., panel-inverter line losses among other aspects.
Solar energy ramification

The educational ramification elements of renewable energy include the various elements integral to the solar technology (Qazi et al., 2019). This includes addressing the gaps in the solar training programs plus the Energy Education within the solar workforce and other professionals. The support of the continued education pertaining to the readiness to adopt solar energy plus the associated Grid growth. Also, it includes maintaining the well-connection of solar instructors plus harnessing their role from the training institutions especially with engineering students. It includes the knowledge impact through education of the various professionals with their indirect involvement to solar technology e.g., individuals working as Real-Estate agents, utility providers, Design professionals, Fire Emergency services, Insurance & Code enforcement officers (Alipour et al., 2019).

The legal considerations of renewable energy include the ethical implications of solar technology. It includes the PUD expressed through the equipment standardization which includes the cost, service and maintenance specification (Alipour et al., 2019). Preserving the revenue streams that form the legal-economic factor, safety islanding expressed through the phase and voltage, grid continuity through community obligation (SEIA, 2021). Federal aspects such as the installation requirement of Photovoltaic system, the accepted roof age and its condition. County considerations include the mechanical or structural integrity of this photovoltaic system i.e., Lift and Load requirement, Fire safety compliance information. Finally, it includes the state requirements; worker’s safety, electrical components and techniques.

Figure showing the Quantitative analysis of Solar resources with the House demand, PUD net and the production.

Figure showing the earth tilted position in the analysis of solar energy using the international map.

The potential solutions of renewable energy include the viable techniques of resolving difficulties associated with the technology. This includes the institutional obstacles; inadequate infrastructure, lack of skilled manpower among other factors. It also encompasses the economic hindrances such as greater upfront costs, and lack of financing mechanisms associated with this technology (Alipour et al., 2019). Additionally, other ways of improving the performance is through directly addressing the lower solar cell efficiencies plus the Balance of System (B.O.S).
PESTLE Analysis

PESTLE analysis used involved collecting data from investigation and information from previously researched articles applicable in the renewable energy sector for the United States of America. Generally, PESTLE analysis covers a range of internal and external issues affecting our area of interest: solar panels. The following are components of PESTLE analysis discussed briefly.
Political issues

Political issues affecting renewable energy in the USA, particularly solar energy, are based on geographical location, rules and regulations governing the energy sector, government policies, USA relationship with other countries, bureaucracy, level of corruption, among other issues revolving around the political setup (USEPA, 2021).
Economic issues

Economic issues affecting solar energy include:

· Employment rate.

· Gross domestic product (GDP).

· Level of inflation.

· Stability of the economy.

· Local and foreign investments.

Those are the main factors/issues affecting the development of renewable sources, particularly in most countries, including the USA. Additionally, labor force, wage rate, and income also influence the development of these sources economically (Takim et al., n.d.).
Social issues

In terms of social issues, the main aspects influencing renewable energy development are business culture surrounding the renewable sources, lifestyle and taste of the individuals, energy demand levels locally in the state, demographic elements such as size and the culture of the people (Takim et al., n.d.).
Technological issues

With the advancement in technology across the globe, the integration of renewable energy to the new and advanced design, especially in most developed countries, depends on technology. Technology is one of the aspects that should be considered in terms of tariffs systems, control, and development of network design and research facilities equipped with advanced techniques (Takim et al., n.d.).
Environmental issues

The environmental issues influencing the development of renewable energy that should be considered include:

· The change in the climate.

· Availability of natural resources.

· Natural disasters such as earthquakes.

· Availability of renewable energy sources.
Legal issues

Legal issues or rather policies affecting the implementation of renewable energy and organization that pertain law and order of the state are the main issues essential for the integration of renewable energy sources (Takim et al., n.d.).
Recommendations

It is important to introduce solar energy widely in the countries to ensure that the awareness about the use of these renewable sources of energy is spread. It is high time that people are made to realize how effective it is to use solar energy and replace the non-renewable resources which are on the verge of depletion in the near future. In order to persuade people in using solar energy as an alternate source for meeting the daily needs of energy, the countries must take steps to install solar panels at houses to at least let the people realize the effectiveness of using solar energy (SEIA, 2021). It is true that installing solar panels require a great amount of monetary investment and that is the reason most of the citizens will try to avoid using solar energy which will cost them a fortune in the beginning.

In this regard either government can take steps to give subsidies to families who take the initiative of installing solar panels at houses or they can promote the use of solar power by installing the solar panels at public places and demonstrating the power that the panels withhold to meet the energy needs of these places (Qazi et al., 2019). Solar panels can be installed in public places to check how much energy the system can produce to meet the huge needs of those places. Initiatives can also be taken by the business organizations and any private organization to use solar panels in their office buildings and using a huge amount of the energy produced by the panels to meet the needs of electricity. The use of solar energy in public places will encourage people to set up solar panels at their homes as well and slowly that can bring a huge revolution where people will choose renewable energy over the non-renewable energy sources.

The recommendations for resolving the difficulties expressed with the use of solar energy rely on the actions taken by the stakeholders. Among them is directing higher investments on the Research & Development sector that helps in tackling solar energy research topics from government & NGOs. Interactions from the beneficial standpoint between the regulatory frameworks responsible for either standards and policies with the stakeholders help in boosting the technology to its limits (SEIA, 2021). Additionally, through developing novel approaches such as the renewable energy practices and research forms a future roadmap. Finally, there is a need to introduce and increase subsidies aimed for the residential solar generation to boost the technology while competing with utility-scale generators.
Conclusions

It is with little initiatives that big changes can be brought forth and in case of the use of solar energy as an alternative to the non-renewable sources of energy, steps must be taken by the required authorities to promote such use. It is high time that people need to realize how we are endangering the non-renewable resources by depleting them with our rising demands (Takim et al., n.d.). Logical thinking shows how it is important to save those resources which are on the verge of depletion and switch to such resources which are always available. Convincing people to take such steps and use solar energy is indeed tough because people are already used to the non-renewable sources. Until and unless the credibility of the solar energy is established, they cannot be persuaded easily to change their habit of falling back to the non-renewable resources. It is true that with the high degree of pollution that is happening die to the use of the non-0eenewanle resources, the government of every nation must take strict measures to adapt to this change where they will make the citizens switch to the renewable sources of energy like that of solar power (USEPA, 2021). Although initially the installation of the solar panels can seem expensive, in the long run it will prove to be cheaper in comparison to the non-renewable sources which are present in a limited amount and the demand for which is high. At least the costs of the solar energy will not fluctuate like that of the non-renewable resources because solar energy is available in unlimited amount. It cannot be denied that all of a sudden switching to other resources might seem irrational but if slowly people adapt to the change, it will seem reasonable to them (Alipour et al., 2019). People can use solar energy for a specific purpose to see how that is meeting their needs and then gradually switch over completely to such resource if they find it suitable and credible.
REFERENCES

Alipour, M., Hafezi, R., Papageorgiou, E., Hafezi, M., & Alipour, M. (2019). Characteristics and scenarios of solar energy development in Iran: Fuzzy cognitive map-based approach. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 116, 109410.

Habib, H. Positivism and Post-positivistic Approaches to Research.

Solar Energy Industries Association. 2021. U.S. Solar Market Insight. Received from https://www.seia.org/us-solar-market-insight

Takim, S. A., Onyinkepreye, L. B., Egbe, J. G., Azorshubel, I., & Ibeh, M. I. Applications and Performance Evaluation of Renewable Energy Technology Development in Nigeria using PESTEL Evaluation.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2021. Local Renewable Energy Benefits and Resources. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/statelocalenergy/local-renewable-energy-benefits-and-resources

Qazi, A., Hussain, F., Rahim, N. A., Hardaker, G., Alghazzawi, D., Shaban, K., & Haruna, K. (2019). Towards sustainable energy: a systematic review of renewable energy sources, technologies, and public opinions. IEEE Access, 7, 63837-63851.

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