The Impact of Climate Change on Food Security

The Impact of Climate Change on Food Security

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Sociology 450 Global Solutions

Summer 2022

 

  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. Background Information General Information (attention grabber) What is your interest in this assignment as a paid United Nations consultant? (Refer to the instructions overview section): Your task is to objectively assess the impact that global warming is predicted to have on future population growth and the ability of developing countries to sustain adequate food supplies.
  3. Specific Information (as a UN consultant) What is the main purpose of this investigation? You want to convey why the topic of climate change and food security are issues that require immediate and global action. Note that you are drafting a persuasive paper with the intent to highlight climate change (atmospheric weather patterns) and food security issues for your selected developing country. Provide the name of the developing country; add comments explaining the impact of climate change and food security issues you will examine problems of corruption and misappropriation of funds involving governments of your selected developing country. (Cite sources as needed).
  4. Topic 1: Climate Change and Global Warming
  5. Climate Change and Global Warming: Definition and Differences
  6. Fact based definition of the term “climate change” (Provide definition from at least one credible reference source and add the intext citations).
  7. Fact-based definition of the term “global warming” (Provide definition from at least one credible reference source and add the intext citations).
  8. Discuss in detail why these terms are used interchangeably, and the persistent confusion associated with the use of these term (Provide at least one reference source (preferably two) and add the intext citation(s)).
  •  Topic 2: Climate Change and Credibility Issues
  1. Describe in detail weather pattern changes that impact the temperature and other weather-related issues. Discuss why scientists have historically warned about changing weather patterns caused by various irresponsible human actions. Provide examples of increases in natural disasters, warming ocean and sea level temperatures, greenhouse gas emissions etc. (Provide at least three references sources and properly cite).
  2.    Topic 3: Climate Change and Food Security in Developing Countries
  3. Provide detailed responses to the problems of climate change and food security for your selected developing country. If you choose to discuss two developing countries, you must provide the detailed information for each country. (Provide at least two or three credible sources and cite). It is important to use the most current data and other information for your developing country (as possible) It is a good idea to provide some background regarding your developing country (i.e., general location, main source of food production, recent climate change policies etc.). Note! Under no circumstances are you to address the continents of Africa, Asia, South America, North America, Europe, Antarctica, or Oceania as This major error occurs most often when students refer to “Africa” as a country rather than the second largest continent Hite, 2021), you simply do not have time to cover over fifty African countries in your paper.

 

  1.    Topic 4: Financial Support, Aid Organizations and Governments
  2. Provide detailed information regarding the current debate regarding multinational lending organizations (International Monetary Fund) UNICEF and AID over the financial support for food security.
  3. Use examples of international aid provided to the developing country of your choice. Locate credible information that explains how aid is used and how is responsible for preventing fraud or corruption in receiving aid. If fraud or greed activities have been substantiated, you may provide this information (if available). This information must be presented from credible sources (at least two sources) and properly cited.
  4. Discuss your position regarding misuse of funding. (It is necessary to provide some fact-based information in this section. Again, this information must be presented from credible sources and properly cited.
  5. Discussion/Summary
  6. Present a set of well-organized statements that summarize the important points presented in this paper. Provide statements that will motivate the United Nations officials to act swiftly in reviewing and taking your findings seriously as their hired consultant. Although you are free to add some of your personal thoughts and examples, avoid politicizing or presenting overly general or stereotypical information (i.e., all countries in Africa are struggling with food security, all aid organizations know that corruption is rampant among governments etc.).

Source List

  1. Diallo. 2019. Determinants of Food Insecurity among Maize Farming Households in the

Southern Region of Mali. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jfs/7/5/1/index.html

  1. Hite. 2021. Global Solutions, 6th Edition. p. 9,59,203. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ 07030
  2. Kennedy. 2015. What’s the difference between global warming and climate change? https://www.climate.gov/news-features/climate-qa/whats-difference-between-global-warming-and-climate-change
  3. NASA. 2021. Overview: Weather, Global Warming and Climate Change. https://climate.nasa.gov/resources/global-warming-vs-climate-change/
  4. Sanders. 2019. In media coverage of climate change, where are the facts? https://news.berkeley.edu/2019/09/19/in-media-coverage-of-climate-change-where-are-the-facts/
  5. King. 2018. The Inequality of Climate Change From 1.5 to 2oC of Global Warming. https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018GL078430.
  6. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2019. Impacts of 1.5oC of Global Warming on Natural and Human Systems.

https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/sites/2/2019/02/SR15_Chapter3_Low_Res.pdf

  1. World Bank Group. 2021. Africa. https://www.worldbank.org/en/region/afr/overview

 

Sample Answers

 

Introduction

With the advancement of technology and the use of fossil fuels to power massive industrial applications and most vehicles, the world has seen drastic changes in weather and climate patterns. As a result, these climate changes have resulted in various issues, including food shortages and natural calamities. It has also caused wildlife migration causing conflict with human settlements and a decline in the population of natural habitat organisms (Hite, 2021). These weather changes and conflicts with organisms create an imbalance in the ecosystem leading to a decline in the number of organisms in their natural habitats. As a paid United Nations consultant, I must address these issues and offer solutions and how we change the current situation (Hite, 2021). Without drastic and quick interventions, the world risks entering an unsustainable phase that could lead to more catastrophes. These problems include malnutrition, widespread infections due to poor immunity, and deaths.

Climate change and global warming

With a tremendous increase in the ways information can be shared, different kinds of information concerning the same topic can be shared, leading to confusion. Climate change, and global warming (NASA, 2021). These terms are wrongly used interchangeably, although they have different meanings. Climate change refers to the long-term changes that occur in the typical weather patterns and the atmospheric temperature. Climate change can affect only a specific locality or the entire globe. It can cause shifts in weather patterns, temperature changes, and the shifting of ecosystems in a particular area. The significant causes of climate change include deforestation and charcoal burning, burning fossil fuels to run machinery, implementing forms of intensive agriculture, and wildfires caused by human errors or natural calamities (Sanders, 2019). These practices and events increase the emission of greenhouse gases, leading to disasters such as hurricanes, floods, tsunamis, and temperature spikes.

Global warming, on the other hand, refers to a gradual increase in the overall global temperature mainly resulting from an increase in the emission of greenhouse-effect gases. The greenhouse-effect gases include carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and other pollutants (Hoegh-Guldberg, 2019). These pollutants destroy the ozone layer and trap solar radiation retaining atmospheric heat and leading to temperature rise. The main components implicated in the greenhouse effect include methane, carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrous oxide, and fluorinated gases such as chlorofluorocarbons (NASA, 2021). Burning fossil fuels for industrialization and wild forest fires are the primary sources of carbon dioxide emissions. Aerosol sprays in many cosmetic applications emit chlorofluorocarbons (NASA, 2021). Generally, although global warming and climate change and partially related, climate change is a diverse concept, while global warming deals with an increase in environmental temperature.

Climate change and credibility issues

Since the beginning of the 19th century, the scientific community made a breakthrough in predictions of weather patterns and climate changes based on analysis of data collected and the environmental changes. Using computers, humans can accurately predict future weather changes (NASA, 2021). This is useful since humans can adequately prepare for any impending disasters minimizing damages. Unfortunately, these predictions are never 100% accurate (King, 2018). However, we have to rely on these predictions since they are all we got. the following discussions of several projections and why they are credible.

The first projection is rising environmental temperatures. There have been food spikes in ecological temperatures, as predicted by scientists. Temperatures have increased by 3o to 4o, and the average global temperature is about 57o Fahrenheit (Hoegh-Guldberg, 2019). For instance, Europe has experienced several episodes of heat waves in June and July which have had catastrophic effects on the continent, including wildfires. The heat waves have been so intense, with the significant temperature recorded at 116.7o Fahrenheit. The rise in global temperatures also has nothing on the ice cups leading to rising sea levels.

The second projection is destructive weather patterns. Countries such as India and Bangladesh have experienced heavy downpours causing floods and landslides (King, 2018). The United States and Canada have experienced several heat wave events causing wildfires that have destroyed hundreds of thousands of natural wildlife habitats. In 2020, Australia experienced one of the biggest ones that destroyed major forests and entire ecosystems (NASA, 2021). During those wildfires, many wild animals such as; koalas, birds, and kangaroos died.

 

Climate change and food security in developing countries

Reduced availability of water and increase in environmental temperatures wreak havoc on food produce and livestock, while an increase in climate-related environmental disasters disrupts food supplies and market access. In South Botswana, majority of the lands is drylands. Only about 5% of the area lying in the Kalahari desert is arable (Braganza,  2022). The main challenge overstocking, Reduced number of water points, and large-scale vegetation depletion. As a result, agricultural production declines while food prices increase (Braganza,  2022). Agricultural production faces several challenges due to climate change that include; increasing heat waves, droughts and famine, and wildfires. Heat waves negatively disrupt livestock and agricultural production, leading to a supply shortage. This causes a sharp increase in food market prices (Diallo, 2019).

Furthermore, with poor infrastructure in developing countries such as Zimbabwe, bad weather such as heavy rains and floods paralyzes the transport system; hence perishable goods to the market spoil, thus giving farmers losses and reducing their market availability (Braganza,  2022). Farmers experience significant losses increasing poverty levels. Lack of adequate supply of high-quality goods also results in poor health among individuals, especially those in low-income and developing countries. Poor health results from malnutrition and poverty, preventing them from seeking healthcare services in hospitals.

Drought and forming process reduction in water supply negatively affects global agricultural production. Prolonged drought increases desertification, reducing the arable size (Braganza,  2022). As a result, farmers can not farm and produce food crops leading to their shortage in the market. Additionally, drought and famine reduce and quality and quantity of food made from the available arable land, further adding to the deficit. For instance, Botswana has experienced a declined agricultural production by about 10 to 25% in the past ten years (Diallo, 2019). This has caused a reduction in wood production, vegetables, animal prooduwce and fruits.

Financial support, aid organizations, and governments

Corruption has been a significant problem in progress since the dawn of humankind. Corruption mainly affects the lower ranks of the community due to disasters such as food shortages (Sofe, 2020). The global organizations concerned about corruption are correct regarding this matter since most money intended to help the poor is misappropriated. However, corruption not only affects the countries receiving the aid. Some lending countries and organizations have motives for doing so and only assist in a cover-up story (Sofe, 2020). Examples of international assistance to developing countries include Yemen, Jordan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Somalia, and Afghanistan.

The world health organization and the United States have been providing humanitarian aid. However, plenty of research suggests that there is corruption that occurs when giving help to the people (Sofe, 2020). Service and qualitative research studies that gathered the views of people in crisis highlighted corruption as the main problem. Findings from South-central Somalia and Afghanistan highlighted unjust rational, and unclear means for the people receiving the aid (Sofe, 2020). The process through which the most vulnerable population is to be identified was deeply flawed. In Jordan, for instance, favoritism is a common practice hence only a tiny fraction of the vulnerable population received the required aid (Sofe, 2020). Abuse of power in these countries also saw officials taking all the funds to help those in crisis.

From the available evidence, I believe that most countries receiving financial support from developed governments and other aid organizations take part in corruption practices such as misappropriation of funds, every teasing, nepotism, and embezzle the funds (Sofe, 2020). Corruption practices in these countries is a major factor contributing to the prevailing poverty. Generally, corruption practices reduce the amount of aid required to reach the most vulnerable population. Corruption undermines the efforts put across by the donor countries.

 

Summary

Climate change and global warming are significant problems currently affecting the globe. Climate change and global warming result from poor environmental practices that release gases such as carbon dioxide and other substances that change the climate. This is mainly contributed by using fossil fuels such as petrol and diesel in transport, and forest fires which produce large quantities of carbon dioxide. Climate change and global warming result in disasters that cause livestock and agricultural produce deaths, leading to a worldwide crisis, rising food prices, increased poverty levels, and poor health due to malnutrition. The available weather forecast technology allows people to predict future catastrophes and prepare for impending dangers. However, the technology may not be 100% accurate and therefore requires some advancement to improve accuracy. With the worsening of the situation in developing countries, organizations suggest the world health organization and developed countries such as the United States seek to provide humanitarian aid to these countries. The efforts to curb the death situation in developing countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo are often undermined by corruption practices that are rampant in these countries.

 

 

References

Braganza, C. (2022). Desertification-An Ecological Cataclysm. IJNRD-International Journal of Novel Research and Development (IJNRD), 7(4), 662-666.

Diallo. 2019. Determinants of Food Insecurity among Maize Farming Households in the Southern Region of Mali. http://pubs.sciepub.com/jfs/7/5/1/index.html

Hite. 2021. Global Solutions, 6th Edition. p. 9,59,203. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ 07030

Hoegh-Guldberg. 2019. Impacts of 1.5oC of Global Warming on Natural and Human Systems  https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/sites/2/2019/02/SR15_Chapter3_Low_Res.pdf

King. 2018. The Inequality of Climate Change From 1.5 to 2oC of Global Warming. https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018GL078430.

NASA. 2021. Overview: Weather, Global Warming and Climate Change. https://climate.nasa.gov/resources/global-warming-vs-climate-change/

Sanders. 2019. In media coverage of climate change, where are the facts? https://news.berkeley.edu/2019/09/19/in-media-coverage-of-climate-change-where-are-the-facts/

Sofe, A. A. (2020). Assessment of corruption in the humanitarian assistance in the Puntland State of Somalia. Journal of Financial Crime. https://doi.org/10.1108/JFC-02-2019-0017

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