Female Leadership in the context of Nepalese Banking Industry
Even though female have been a fundamental part of human force, female leadership has been dramatically underrepresented as cited by (Jackson, 2001; Segal, 2005; Kottis, 1993) on the research done by koneck (2006). According to koneck (2006), women continue to experience less success as compared to their male counterparts while assessing senior level position in an organisation. According to the Women in the Labour Force (2005), a recent study shows that the highest percentage of women employed in top management, professional as well as related occupations is only 38%. Although females are holding leadership position in an increasing rate, research done by koneck (2006), suggests that women still remain underrepresented in top position. Females have moved toward gender equality at home as well as in the workplace at increasing pace, females are still underrepresented in the role of leadership as compared to men in the world especially the countries in Asia (Silva & Mendis, 2017). According to Silva & Mendis (2017), a study conducted by Stetler in 2002 showed that the presence of women in the role of corporate leadership position in United states is nearly 40% in which only 0.5% hold top managerial positions. According to Catalyst (2018) cited in Shrestha (2021), currently female holds only 5% of CEO positions, 26.5%of senior/executive level officials, 21.2% of board seats, and 36.9% of first level and second level officials which shows female occupying top level management are still rare (Shrestha, 2021). Corporate success must not be based in gender; however, it is a harsh reality that female in Nepal often have to work twice, less paid for the similar kind of job, and has to suffer innumerable balancing acts in order to make it in top management position (Shrestha, 2021). The banking industry is one of the prime pillars of any countries economy and although it has played critical role in fostering female banking careers, they are still they underrepresented in the top banking position (Shrestha, 2021. Research suggests that female occupies 52 percent of banking industry globally where 38% women occupies middle manager position and only 16% are executive management. In Nepal, the situation is not that different (Shrestha, 2021).
3. Purpose of study
The purpose of this study is investigating the factors which influence female in leadership as well as understanding the attitude of human towards female in influential position in the banking sector of Nepal. In addition to this, this study will focus on investigating social mindset about female leadership in Nepalese banking industry as well as identifying negative factors that that demotivates women towards leadership position.
4. Statement of problem
There are so many powerful women in the world but still there are a smaller number of women in leadership role. Female occupies approximately half of the workforce, however among them only a small fraction occupies leadership position. There is no doubt on the fact that statistic regarding women holding position in leadership position have shown positive changes over the recent year. There is increasing number of women achieving high-level professional degree, but still the percentage of female climbing professional ladder is very low. The situation is even worse in Nepal. One of the strong factors that perpetuate gender disparity and low number of women in leadership role in Nepal is patriarchal nature of Nepalese society (Tulaadhar 2018). Gender disparity, lack of active participation and awareness in decision making are some of the strong the factors that stop women in the participating in leadership role (Tulaadhar 2018). The situation of female leaders in the banking sectors reveals a pitiable situation of female leaders in Nepal (Tulaadhar 2018). As compared to male employees, the female participation in banking sector is very less. Recent data reveals that out of 2500 total employee in Nepal Bank limited, only 560 employees are female (Tulaadhar 2018). Similarly, in Nepal Rastra Bank, out of 1373 of total employee, only 190 are female and in Rastriya Banijaya Bank, out of 1514 employee, 507 are female leaders (Tulaadhar 2018). According to the data of 1993, only 9.14% of women are gazetted officer, 13.3% are non-gazetted officer and 6.53 are support staff which means that place of women in higher position is very low and Nepalese society does not have positive towards female leaders (Tulaadhar 2018).
Nepal is in the phase of massive transition. Even though, women are occupying more leadership position in Nepal as compared to before, unfortunately, female in leadership position are questioned more often and they often need to prove their decisions (My Republica,2021). Still in Nepal, female face various forms of discrimination and the women participation in leadership role is still very role (My Republica, 2021).)
5. Research Objectives
The main objective of this research is to identify and study the status of female leaders of different banking sectors of Nepal as well as to identify the reasons of under representation of female towards leadership role in the banking sector of female.
6. Research Questions
· What is the condition of female leaders in the banking sectors of Nepal?
· What barriers the female leaders should overcome on their way to the leadership?
· Why female is underrepresented in leadership role in the banking sector of Nepal?
· How to increase female leaders in the banking sector of Nepal?
· What advantage can female leader bring in the banking sector of Nepal?
7. Significance of the research
Female leaders play a pivotal role in the development of banking sectors of Nepal. There is not much things done to improve the situation of female leaders in Nepal. This research is an effort to show the actual status of female leaders and the obstacles faced by female leaders in banking sector of Nepal. This research will highlight the factors that influence and motivate women to actively participate in the leadership as well as another influential role. This research will also help to find the current condition of female leaders in Nepalese banking sector. This research will also serve as an additional reference source for other researchers and students whose study are related to the topic. The result of this research will be useful for the whole banking industry of Nepal. This research will be helpful for those researchers who are interested to research in female issues. The result of this research can be useful to the policy planners, policy makers to understand the real situation, problems as well as constraints of female leaders in the context of Nepalese banking sectors.
8. Literature Review
Female and gender leadership
According to the Northouse (2004) cited in the research done by Trinidad & Normore (2005), leadership is a process where an individual motivates a group to attain a common objective. According to Trinidad & Normore (2005), female leadership style in general terms can be described as interpersonal-oriented, democratic and charismatic and is related to gender due to the stereotype of female of being warm, tactful sensitive and warm. According to Eagly and Johnson (1990) cited in the research done by Shaya &Rawan (2017), women follow transformational leadership style whereas men follow transactional leadership. Transactional leaders focus on getting things done through punishment and rewards whereas transformational leaders encourage motivates and inspire their followers. According to Shaya &Rawan (2017), other researchers (Gregory, 1999; Bass and Avolio, 1994; Carli and Eagly, 2001) found the similar findings which shows female tend to have more interpersonal oriented task and use participative leadership style men are found to be using controlling style. According to Akhtar (2008), female is stereotyped to have a characteristic of becoming emotional, gentle, emotional, dependent, sensitive, passive, illogical, warm whereas male is stereotyped to be objective, logical, independent, responsible, aggressive, rational and ambitious. According to Akhtar (2008) cited by (Dennis, Robert, & Kunkel, 2004), top leadership position requires managerial driven, assertive, objective as well as authoritative type of character which are found mostly in men leadership as compare to female leadership.
According to Shabbir et.al (2016), cited by Maxwell (2007), glass ceiling is the hidden trend which hides the natural talent of female and constraints them from reaching in the top managerial position of an organisation. According to Shabbir et.al (2016) cited by (Microsoft Encarta World Encyclopedia). “Glass Ceiling a barricade to future career, is an unsanctioned but actual obstacle to women’s advancement in to higher (managerial) ranks due to dissemination based on individuals’ gender, age, race, ethnicity and sexual preference. Glass ceiling is an obstacle to women’s career in a way that women have to face biasedness based on age, race, customs and gender preferences”.
Gender role Stereotypes
Gender stereotyping refers to the process of judging men and women on the basis of their culturally recommended role as well as assign them in various classifications according to (Shabbir et.al ,2016) cited by (Agars, 2004). According to Schein (1973) cited in the research done by (Shabbir et.al ,2016), gender stereotyping a=can be defined as the belief where a set of capabilities and qualities is more probable to be exist on one gender than other. In a masculine prejudice society, it is stereotyped that women cannot become a fruitful manager and were not regarded an applicable fit for executive and professional position (Shabbir et.al ,2016). In a simple term, a gender stereotype refers fixing the role according to the genders. According to Shabbir et.al (2016), cited by Broverman et al., (1972), the researcher verified the existence of gender stereotyping by regarding women are non-serious, less efficient abou the goals as compared to men. In Asian countries like India, Pakistan and Nepal, although managerial position are actually progressively open for the female leaders, that have to fight against gender bias to obtain leadership roles.
10. Research timetable