What do you know about the marginalized groups in Hong Kong?

PSYG 2504 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Lecture 5 – Prejudice 1 OUTLINE o Stereotype, prejudice and discrimination o Origins of prejudice o Reducing prejudice o Prejudice and discrimination in HK 2 DEFINING THE TERMS ◆ What’s your idea about them? 1. Stereotypes 2. Prejudice 3. Discrimination What do you think about men and women? 4 1. STEREOTYPES ◆ Beliefs about the personal attributes that all members of a particular group or social category share . ◆ Cognitive framework and categorization that influence the processing of social information ◆ Information related to a stereotype is often processed more quickly, and remembered better, than information unrelated to it (Macrae et al., 1997) ◆ Inconsistent information may be refuted or changed in subtle ways to make it consistent (Kunda & Oleson, 1995) Sagar and Schofield (1980) Racial Bias Study Purpose: demonstrate stereotypes bias interpretation of ambiguous events Participants: 40 African American (AA), 40 White (W) Method:

1. Participants presented with ambiguous drawings (e.g. bumps, asks for cakes, take pencil, pokes) with “actors” depicted as W or AA 2. Participants rated “actors” behavior as “mean/playful/threatening/friendly” Results ? 6 1. STEREOTYPES 1. STEREOTYPES ◆ Can be Positive or Negative ◆ Can be accurate or inaccurate • Overgeneralization • Overemphasis on negative attributes • Overestimate the differences between groups • Underestimate the differences within groups ◆ Can be agreed with or rejected by group members GENDER STEREOTYPES 8 ◆ Gender stereotypes are distinct in that they are not only descriptive, but also prescriptive ◆ They tell people what they should do or be 2. PREJUDICE o The evaluation (usually negative ) of a group or an individual based mainly on group membership o “ Occurs naturally in the human species” (Ponterotto, 2006, p. 11) • Prejudgment ▪ e.g. Alice is not a competent manager because she is a woman (before you try to understand her ability)  Contain negative affect/emotion  e.g. strong dislike for Japanese in those who have experienced the WWII 9 o Those who are prejudiced against also hold a negative stereotype of their group, o e.g. gay people are likely to have a stereotype of gay such as immoral or low self – esteem o Unprejudiced people still know the most common stereotypes even though they don’t agree with them  Devine and Elliot (1995) asked students about content of black stereotype and whether they believed it themselves 10 2. PREJUDICE 3. DISCRIMINATION o Negative behaviors towards individuals based on their group membership o Prejudice “legitimizes” discrimination o Covert and Overt o Discrimination decreased in recent years in the US and many other countries • “Old – fashioned” racism, for instance, is simply replaced by modern racism (more subtle) (Swim et al., 1995) • Concealing prejudice from others in public settings, but expressed when it is safe • ‘failing to even notice race’ / color – blind 11 GROUP ANTAGONISM The ABC ◆ A ffective/Attitudinal = Prejudice ◆ B ehavioral = Discrimination ◆ C ognitive = Stereotypes Prejudice and Discrimination EXAMPLE: RACISM •The beginning of the modern civil rights movement was in December 1, 1955 in Alabama •Mrs. Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat to a white passenger •She was then arrested and fined 13 EXAMPLE: RACISM ▪Dr. Martin Luther King started a boycott of the city bus lasted 381 days until the Supreme Court ruling declaring segregation illegal on public buses in 1956 ▪The lady who “sat down” to “stand up” died on Monday, October 24, 2005 ▪Elected by TIME as one of the 100 most influential persons in the last century 14 I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. 15 EXAMPLE: RACISM SHOOTER BIAS Racial Progress ◆ Research reveals that racial prejudice has been on the decline over the last several decades ◆ Election of Barack Obama was seen by many as significant sign of racial progress EXAMPLE: RACISM ◆ Women face discrimination in work settings, higher education and government (e.g. Fisher, 1992) ◆ Issues on Gender Inequality ◆ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2SrpARP_M0o EXAMPLE: SEXISM OTHER EXAMPLES o Sexual orientation  Sometimes called heterosexism  Most adult in the US hold negative attitudes toward homosexual behavior, regarding it as wrong and unnatural (Herek & Capitanio, 1996; Yang, 1997) 18 o Age  Elderly people are often assumed to be less capable physically and mentally (Levy & Langer, 1994) o Weight  Sometimes called “size discrimination”  Overweight people are perceived as less attractive, less intelligent, less happy, less self – disciplined, and less successful (Hebl & Heatherton, 1998) 19 o Physical attractiveness • Also known as appearance prejudice • Physically attractive people receive more lenient punishments (Mazzella & Feingold, 1994) OTHER EXAMPLES OTHER EXAMPLES o Singlism  Most people are not aware  Fifty percent of the time, married people were described as kind, giving, and caring, but those attributes were applied to single people only 2% of the time (DePaulo and Morris, 2006)  legal privileges that come with married status 20 THE ORIGINS OF PREJUDICE A. Motivational factors: Perceived THREAT to the well – being of a group ◼ Realistic conflict theory – prejudice and discrimination stem from the perceived threat to the group resources B. Cognitive factors: preservation of self – esteem through group identification ◼ Social identity theory – consequences/ cognitive effects with the identification with a social group C. Cultural factors and social norms 21 MOTIVATIONAL FACTOR: INTERGROUP COMPETITION Realistic conflict theory views prejudice as an inevitable consequence of conflict between groups for limited and valued resources  Resources such as commodities or opportunities  Competition intensifies conflict (Sherif et al., 1961; the Robbers Cave Experiment )  Competition → emotion – laden prejudice  Tension/conflicts reduced with the pursuit of common superordinate goals  Any examples in HK? 22 COGNITIVE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL IDENTITY o Social categorization: the “us” (an ingroup ) VS “them” (an outgroup ) effect o The ‘we’ aspect of our self – concept, enhanced self – esteem through affiliation 23 o Social identity theory (Tajfel, 1982) is concerned with the consequences of perceiving the self as a member of a social group and identifying with it o Assumptions: 1. We categorize 2. We identify 3. We compare 24 COGNITIVE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL IDENTITY Social identity 25 COGNITIVE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL IDENTITY o Perceiving people as members of in – groups and out – groups leads to  In – group favoritism effect/In – group bias (Tajfel et al., 1971) ▪ We evaluate ingroup members more positively, reward them more, and find them more persuasive than outgroup members (e.g. Allen & Wilder, 1975) 26 COGNITIVE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL IDENTITY IN – GROUP VS OUT – GROUP 27  Group – serving biases  Make internal attributions for an ingroup’s successes and external attributions for its failures , and just the opposite for the outgroup  White students tended to attribute a high GPA of white applicants for college admission to ability and a low GPA to a lack of effort and held the reverse view for black applicants (Jackson et al., 1993) 28 COGNITIVE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL IDENTITY  The assumed – similarity effect ▪ Other in – group members are seen as more similar to the self than out – group members ▪ Allen and Wilder (1979) made students believe that they were grouped accordingly to artistic preference (in fact, randomly) and found that students assumed other ingroup members were more similar to them than outgroup members even on matters unrelated to art 29 COGNITIVE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL IDENTITY o The outgroup homogeneity effect ▪ “They are all alike, while we are diverse.” 30 ▪ We are more likely to see subcategories in the ingroup ▪ While Americans see all Asians as the same, we make a careful distinction between Vietnamese, Filipino, Thai, Japanese, Taiwanese, Mainland Chinese, Hong Konger, etc. • We perceive any ingroup member as more complex o White students see other whites as more complex than black people (Jones et al., 1981) o Young people see the young as more complex than the elderly and vice versa (Park & Rothbart, 1982) COGNITIVE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL IDENTITY CULTURAL FACTORS AND SOCIAL NORMS Social learning theory : we acquire (negative) attitudes towards other social groups by hearing such views expressed by significant others.

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o Rewards for adopting the same views, e.g. love, approval  Socialization  The Media 31 o Socialization  A process by which children learn the conventional social norms  By age 4 or 5, most children living in the US differentiate between blacks and whites and are aware of the prevailing norms about race  By age 7, most also showed signs of prejudice against Asians or Native Americans (Aboud, 1988) 32 CULTURAL FACTORS AND SOCIAL NORMS Parents as Socializing Agent CULTURAL FACTORS AND SOCIAL NORMS o Mass Media coverage reflects and reinforces stereotypes and discrimination  e.g., Gilens (1999) found that the media presents an inaccurate picture of people on welfare, showing them as much more likely to be black and unemployed than is the case in reality 34 CULTURAL FACTORS AND SOCIAL NORMS •Media exposure can influence people’s attitudes and behavior 35 CULTURAL FACTORS AND SOCIAL NORMS REDUCING PREJUDICE o Socialization ▪ More education people have, the less prejudiced they are likely to be (esp. for people with college degrees) (Schuman et al., 1997) ▪ Media exposure yield limited change in people’s attitudes towards outgroup (Paluck, 2009; Kallman, 2017) 36 REDUCING PREJUDICE o Intergroup Contact  Most white soldiers initially opposed desegregation reduced opposition after intergroup contact (Pettigrew, 1958)  Several surveys in Europe found that having more friends in minority groups was associated with less prejudice (Pettigrew, 1997) 37 Allport’s contact hypothesis ◆ Under certain conditions, direct contact between hostile groups will reduce prejudice & discrimination REDUCING PREJUDICE REDUCING PREJUDICE o However , many efforts at intergroup contact do not meet the conditions  Even in desegregated schools, children tend to associate more with their own race (Schofield, 1978) 39 REDUCING PREJUDICE o Recategorization  A shift in the boundary between the in – group (us) and some out – group (them) ▪ Gaertner et al. (1990) suggest helping people to experience working together cooperatively can induce people belonging to different groups to perceive each other as members of a single group  e.g., your identity changes from local students to HKBU students 40 DISCRIMINATION IN HONG KONG 41 ◼ Physical and Mental Disabilities ◼ Psychiatric conditions ◼ Ethnic minority/mainland Chinese ◼ Gender identity (Foley et al., 2006) ◼ Sexual orientation (Lau & Stotzer, 2010) ◼ personal status, e.g. divorced, pregnancy ◼ Occupations, e.g. sex workers ◼ … WORK OF EOC IN HONG KONG The Equal Opportunities Commission (EOC) is a statutory body set up in 1996 to implement the Sex Discrimination Ordinance (SDO) 《 性別歧視條 例》 , the Disability Discrimination Ordinance (DDO) 《 殘疾歧視條例》 and the Family Status Discrimination Ordinance (FSDO) 《 家庭崗位歧視 條例》 The Commission works towards the elimination of discrimination on the grounds of sex, marital status, pregnancy, disability and family status 42 REFLECTIONS ◆ What social groups do you identify with? ◆ Do you find people speaking English or European languages superior to you/people with dark skin inferior to you?

◆ What do you know about the marginalized groups in Hong Kong?

◆ How much do you aware of your own prejudice and discrimination?

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