What is the etiology of bronchitis?
Bronchitis occurs when the bronchi, the large tubes that carry air to the lungs, become inflamed and hypersensitive (McCance, Huether, Brashers, & Rote, 2013). Bronchitis is classified into two types: acute (precipitous onset) and chronic (ongoing) (long-term). Acute bronchitis is most commonly caused by viruses and is usually self-limiting (McCance, Huether, Brashers, & Rote, 2013). Viruses are responsible for an estimated 95% of acute bronchitis in healthy adults. Antigens, irritants, and bacteria can all cause acute bronchitis (Kinkade & Long, 2016). Irritants include, among other things, smoke inhalation, contaminated air inhalation, and dust (Kinkade & Long, 2016). Acute bronchitis is a clinical diagnosis characterized by a perceptible cough with or without phlegm production, as well as manifestations of lower respiratory tract infection in the absence of recurrent lung disease, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or a recognizable cause, such as pneumonia or sinusitis. A virus infection is frequently the cause of acute bronchitis (Kinkade & Long, 2016).
Rhinovirus, enterovirus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza, coronavirus, human matapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus are
the most commonly diagnosed viruses (Kinkade & Long, 2016). Bacteria are found in one to ten percent of cases of acute bronchitis. Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertusis are uncommon causes of acute bronchitis (Kinkade & Long, 2016). Approximately 10% of patients who present with a cough lasting at least two weeks have evidence of B. pertusis infection (Kinkade & Long, 2016).
Chronic Bronchitis (CB) is a kind of chronic obstructive disease (COPD) represented by swelling of the bronchi and extreme mucus generation in the trachea ad bronchi (Kinkade & Long, 2016). Diagnosis necessitates that a chronic productive cough be existing for greater than three months in every of two successive consecutive years (Kinkade & Long, 2016). CB is as a result of chronic cyclical or incessant airway irritation by cigarette smoke, air pollution, or infection (Kinkade & Long, 2016). Correlated histological changes compromise of brochial submucosal hyperplasia, smooth muscle hypertrophy, and chronic inflammation (Kinkade & Long, 2016).