Why do Patients Acquire Infection in Hospitals

Week 3 Assignment Description

Data-to-Wisdom Continuum Analysis Paper

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The purpose of this assignment is to be able to incorporate the data-to-wisdom continuum into the practice of professional nurse. You are required to think of a concept/issue/idea in your practice area then relate it to the four steps of the data, information, knowledge, wisdom continuum.

 

  • Develop the concept/idea/issue you selected from your practice area into a relevant question. For example, if you are thinking of patient falls, you may think of a question such as: what factors that leads to patient falls in a nursing home?
  • Describe the question you developed and then relate how you would work through the four steps of the data, information, knowledge, wisdom continuum. Be specific.
    • Identify the databases and search words you would use to search for data and information about your topic.
    • Relate how you would take the information gleaned and turn it into useable knowledge.
    • Can informatics be used to gain wisdom?
    • Describe how you would progress from simply having useful knowledge to the wisdom to make decisions about the information you have found during your database search.

 

  • Must use at least 5 scholarly reference of which, at least 2 journal articles.
  • Limit the paper to three-five pages excluding the cover page, reference and appendices pages, using APA format. Writing style is at a graduate level.

 

 

 

Grading Criteria

Week 3 Assignment

Data-to-Wisdom Continuum Analysis Paper

 

Criteria Possible Points Earned Points/Comments
The concepts or idea or issue is clearly described with relevance and significance to practice area.  

10

 
Develop the concept/idea/issue you selected from your practice area into a relevant question. The question is relevant and appropriate. 5  
Describe the question you developed and then relate how you would work through the four steps of the data, information, knowledge, wisdom continuum. Be specific.

·   Identify the databases and search words you would use to search for data and information about your topic.

·   Relate how you would take the information gleaned and turn it into useable knowledge.

·   Can informatics be used to gain wisdom?

·   Describe how you would progress from simply having useful knowledge to the wisdom to make decisions about the information you have found during your database search.

50  
References/Citation/Literature support:

Support the paper with literature and use at least 5 scholarly of which at least 3 journal articles.

Provide citations throughout the paper.

20  
Writing style is neat and consistent with the Herzing University “grading rubric for written assignment” as described in this syllabus. 5  
-Follow APA format

-3-5 pages excluding, cover page, and reference page.

-No abstract needed

10  
Total  

 

Sample Answer

 

Hospital Acquired Infections: Data-to-Wisdom Analysis Paper

Nurses often strive to gain more insight into the cognitive process of transforming data to wisdom, using the data, information, knowledge and wisdom (DIKW). The model depicts the concepts and megastructures underpinning nursing informatics practice (Nelson, 2018). With proper adoption of this model, the nurse is able to effectively convert data and information gained from theory and practice into knowledge and ultimately into wisdom. The data-to-wisdom continuum portrays data and wisdom as the lowest and highest abstraction levels, respectively. Mutongi (2016) sought to provide a reflection on the laxity of attitudes towards knowledge management in nursing, which sounds more abstract and philosophical than practice. This researcher suggested that the DIKW model is critical in creating an a deal theoretical picture of the nursing issues and thus facilitating one’s effectiveness in practical matters. In the nursing practices, one of the recurrent issues that nurses encounter is hospital infections (HAIs). The necessary clinical question pertaining to this issue is: why do patients acquire infections in hospitals? This paper provides a succinct description of the question and relates it to the specific steps of DIKW model.

Patients often develop HAIs while receiving care in various health care facilities, including hospitals. Such infections often appear after at least 48 hours following the patient’s admission in the hospital or within a period of 30 days after they have received health care (Haque, Sartelli, McKimm, & Bakar, 2018). Traditionally, HAIs were referred to as nosocomial infections since they were associated with patients admitted in acute-care hospitals. Currently, HAIs encompass all those infections that patients suffer from while being admitted in various health care settings. Per the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), approximately 1.7 million patients admitted in hospitals acquire infections while undergoing treatment for different heath issues, with over 98,000 of them experiencing HAI-related deaths (Haque, Sartelli, McKimm, & Bakar, 2018). These startling statistics underscores the importance of the current clinical question. With this question in mind, the DIKW model would guide the researcher to uncover the reasons as to why patients acquire infections whole being admitted and effectively apply the knowledge and information gained into evidence-based practice.

The first step towards the cognitive process of gaining wisdom would involve gathering the necessary data and information from online sources. This phase requires the researcher to be capable of using a variety of online databases in search for the relevant literature, from which to extract data and information. Before detailing the extraction of information and data, it is critical to conceptualize what the data and information entails using the DIKW model. As the lowest hierarchical level in the DIKW model, data refers to the meaningless discrete entities and symbols that need to be properly organized and interpreted. It can be obtained through measurements, recording, or collection. The data level is the critical threshold level that the nurse would form a solid basis for gaining wisdom regarding the current clinical question. The nurse would extract data and information through conducting online searchers on various databases, including Google Scholar, Ebscohost, CINAHL, and the American Nurses Association’s National Nursing Database. A number of search words will be employed, including hospital-acquired infections (HAIs),” “symptoms of HAIs,” “nosocomial infections,” and “common HAIs”. The searches will yield credible journal articles, including randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies, population-based cohort studies, metanalyses, and systematic literature reviews.

The data obtained from the articles will be organized in such a way that it generates important information. In order to achieve this, the nurse researcher would organize the data under common recurrent themes and subthemes in literature. At this stage, it will be necessary to draw important relationships, connections, patterns, and contexts from literature based on domain experience and knowledge. Specifically, the researcher will identify and outline the various hospital acquired infections associated with acute-care patients, their prevalence, and morbidity and mortality rates. In addition, the nurse will also examine and articulate all hospital malpractices that contribute to the occurrence of HAIs among admitted patients. Most importantly, the research will identify and outline the necessary preventive measures against HAIs and their respective efficacies.

After generating the requisite information, the next step would focus on transforming it into knowledge that can be applied in the clinical setting. To do this, the nurse will effectively synthesize the information gleaned and formalize the correlations between HAIs and other variables. In addition, the nurse will also use the patterns identified in literature to predict the occurrence of hospital acquired infections among patients from various other illnesses or undergoing various medical procedures. Similarly, the nurse will benchmark the best practices that help in preventing the occurrence of HAIs. Such endeavors of translating theoretical information into knowledge are consistent with Matney, Avant, and Staggers’ (2015) argument that nursing theory forms the basis for developing nursing knowledge, with its principles providing critical support to nursing practice. The theory not only shapes the nursing practice but also creates a platform for expressing critical ideas in the clinical setting. Benchmarking will help the nurse to ascertain whether the theoretical preventive practices and their efficacies are applicable in practice. Specifically, personal hygiene, including hand washing has been linked with positive patient outcomes in terms reducing the possibility of developing HAIs (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, AHRQ, 2019). This, the nurse will examine the effectiveness of hand washing in their clinical practice.

Informatics plays a key role in helping nurses to gain wisdom. For instance, it can help nursing practitioners in developing the skills needed for acquiring critical knowledge and information. It is also through the use of informatics that the nurse is able to efficiently manage the information gleaned, which translates into useful knowledge. Such knowledge is in turn critical in solving real-life health problems in the clinical setting. In general, informatics is a critical tool for nurses in that it enables them to provide efficient care to their patients, communities, and families. Thus, the nurse is able to gain wisdom through effective and efficient use of informatics.

The final and most important step would involve progressing from merely having critical knowledge to the use of wisdom in making important clinical decisions based on the information gleaned from the online searches. In this case, the nurse would sensitize other health care practitioners on the causes and consequences of, and preventive measures against the development of hospital acquired infections. Specifically, upon gaining adequate insight regarding the efficacy of personal hygiene in preventing the infections, the nurse will encourage others to use a checklist of all the necessary hygienic practices required while providing care to patients or performing various surgical practices. By so doing, the nurse would have used wisdom in curbing the spread of hospital acquired infections.

 

References

AHRQ. (2019). Health care-associated infections. Retrieved on July 22, 2019 from https://psnet.ahrq.gov/primers/primer/7/Health-Care-Associated-Infections

Haque, M., Sartelli, M., McKimm, J., & Bakar, M. A. (2018). Health care-associated infections – an overview. Infection and Drug Resistance, 11, 2321-2333.

Matney, S. A., Avant, K., & Staggers, N. (2015). Toward an understanding of wisdom in nursing. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 21(2). DOI: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol21No01PPT02

Mutongi,C. (2016). Revisting data, information and wisdom (DIKW) model and introducing green leaf model. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), 18(7), 66-71.

Nelson, R. (2018). Informatics: Evolution of the nelson data. Information¸ knowledge and wisdom model. The Onlien Journal of Issues in Nursing, 23(3). 10.3912/OJIN.Vol23No03InfoCol01

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