Assignment: NSGCB 486 Reflection 3

Assignment: NSGCB 486 Reflection 3

Assignment: NSGCB 486 Reflection 3

This reflection should be completed in a minimum of 500 words. This reflection activity is meant to help build your knowledge around theory and practice in preparation for your competency assessment.

Complete your reflection by responding to all prompts.


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The WHO recommends that during a pandemic or major disease outbreak, the public health response should include contact tracing (secondary prevention surveillance). Contact tracing is very time-intensive, requiring trained personnel with access to persons who have been exposed, who may be willing or resistant to speak with public health contact tracer staff. New Zealand implemented in early 2020 a national tracing app for personal smartphones using principles of big data in surveillance.

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Review the following web-based materials in preparation for completing your reflection on the ethics of digital contact tracing during a pandemic or disease outbreak. Click on the web link for each article to view online.

NZCOVID Tracer App: Explore sections on How it works and Privacy & Security

Scudellari, M. (2020, Nov.25) How Iceland hammered COVID with science.

Additional information:

WHO Q&A: Ethics in public health surveillance

Conduct additional research for how contact tracing has been or could be used during any major disease outbreak via the University Library.

Identify a developing nation characterized by a population with low and middle incomes and other socioeconomic indicators.

How could a contact tracing process for any disease benefit your chosen country?

How could contact tracing be implemented locally?

Compare and contrast how other countries might use data from such an app compared to how the United States might use the data.

Note: Although references are not required, if you do use references in either section, please follow APA guidelines for in-text citations and references. Use the APA Style Guide, 7th Edition.

Submit your reflection.

Assignment: NSGCB 486 Reflection 3 Sample

Contact Tracing Reflection Essay

For many people, COVID-19 is perhaps one of a kind crisis that they experienced in recent times. It resulted in universal panic, cessation of movement, school and business closure, healthcare system overstretching, and ultimately economic recession. The effects of the pandemic were in effect direr with the number of mortalities constantly rising before the advent of vaccination (James, 2021). I believe that the effects of the pandemic would in fact be worse were it not for the stringent implementation of contact tracing, quarantine, and isolation together with the use of face masks and sanitization. These measuresallowed for different governments to identify casesearlyandmanage them while separating those in contact with the infected person and therefore reducing community spared (James, 2021). The purpose of this essay is to reveal the importance, benefits, and implementation of contact tracing in managing public health crisis especially in low income countries such as South Sudan.

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South Sudan is a nation riddled with a constant humanitarian crisis, food insecurity, violence, and disease outbreaks with multiple internally displacement settlements that increase the county’s vulnerability (Wamala, 2022). Furthermore, the country has low resources, as such, the little resource available are overstretched in trying to manage the large disease burden of other infections such as TB, cholera, and non-communicable diseases such as hypertension (Wamala, 2022).During the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, despite the implementation of contact tracing and isolation, the situation was particularly not ideal as the camps with internally displaced persons were faced with poor sanitation, lack of access to water, overcrowding, and in effect high transmission of the disease.

In an ideal setting, the premise of surveillance testing, quarantine and isolation, and effective treatment would in fact reduce the spread and mortality related to COVID in South Sudan.Contact tracing would allow the early identification of both asymptomatic and symptomatic cases of COVID with particular emphasis on isolation and quarantine (Koetter, 2020). This would allow appropriate interventions thereby reducing community spread and generally the disease burden to the nation. Additionally, it enables follow up for close case contacts ensuring that they are adequately monitored for development of symptoms ensuring early intervention (Koetter, 2020). This also reduces the cost of health care during the pandemic as spread is curbed ultimately reducing the cost for caring for those infected.

Local implementation of an efficient contact tracing system would require proper financing and adequate and appropriate human resources coupled with public participation. The key to a successful contact tracing activity is the presence of a trained workforce who execute their duties in a timely and professional manner (Koetter, 2020). Steps involve the identification of the first positive case, followed by a complex process of identifying close contacts from the patient’s history of places visited (Koetter, 2020). This is then followed by the identification of contacts of contacts and so forth with appropriate isolation, quarantine and treatment of positive cases. Following this, there is follow up of the identified individuals which allows monitoring and record keeping of the same.

In recent times, there is the use of technology, in particular mobile applications, to aid in the process of contact tracing (Seto, 2021). Despite the implementation of technology in the contact tracing process, there are various concerns regarding privacy of user information. The United States has had a record ofintrusion ang government surveillance evidenced by while blowers such as Edward Snowden. Studies also reveal that the general public is particularly concerned that the government through the applications meant for health care contact tracing will collect their information and inadvertently monitor their online activity illegally without their permission (Ioannou& Tussyadiah, 2021). This is of high concern within the united states compared to other nations whose citizens believe that their governments will respect their privacy even as they roll out technology to aid in healthcare delivery and contact tracing s in the case of public health outbreaks s in the case of COVID-19.

Ultimately, it is evident that contact tracing is in fact the cornerstone of managing any public health crisis. It is of benefit in allowing for early detection of exposed and high-risk individuals enabling prompt intervention thereby preventing more devastating outcomes.


Ioannou, A., & Tussyadiah, I. (2021). Privacy and surveillance attitudes during health crises: Acceptance of surveillance and privacy protection behaviours. Technology in society, 67, 101774.

James, A., Plank, M. J., Hendy, S., Binny, R., Lustig, A., Steyn, N., Nesdale, A., & Verrall, A. (2021). Successful contact tracing systems for COVID-19 rely on effective quarantine and isolation. PloS one, 16(6), e0252499.

Koetter, P., Pelton, M., Gonlo, J., Du, P., Exten, C., Bogale, K., Buzelli, L., Connolly, M., Edel, K.,Hoffman, A., Legro, N. R., Medin, D., Sood, N., Blaker, J., Kearcher, K., & Sciamann, C. (2020). Implementation and Process of a COVID-19 Contact Tracing Initiative: Leveraging Health professional Students to Extend the Workforce During a Pandemic. American journal of infection control, 48(12), 1451-1456.

Seto, E., Challa, P., & Ware, P. (2021). Adoption of COVID-19 Contact Tracing Apps: A Balance Between Privacy and Effectiveness. Journal of medical Internet research, 23(3), e25726.

Wamala, J. F., Loro, F., Deng, S. J., Berta, K. K., Guyo, A. G., Mpairwe, A., Ndenzako, F., & Rumunu, J. P. (2022). Epidemiological characterization of COVID-19 in displaced populations of South Sudan. The Pan African medical journal, 42(Suppl 1), 4.

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