**Frequency and Descriptive Statistics Assignment**

**Frequency and Descriptive Statistics Assignment**

**Frequency and Descriptive Statistics Assignment**

*There are many purposes for frequency and descriptive statistics in data analysis. Some of the most common uses include exploring data, understanding relationships between variables, and making predictions. Frequency statistics can be used to understand how often certain values occur in a data set. This can be helpful in identifying patterns or outliers. Descriptive statistics can be used to summarize a data set and calculate measures of central tendency (such as the mean or median) and dispersion (such as the standard deviation). These summary measures can give you a good overview of your data, which can be helpful in further analyses (Grove et al., 2020). Both frequency and descriptive statistics are important tools for data analysis. The choice of which statistic to use depends on the specific question and the type of data. The purpose of this assignment is to provide the interpretation of the descriptive statistics of the data from the SPSS output given.*

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*Determining variables in the research process is necessary in ensuring accuracy in the interpretation of the descriptive statistics. Some of the variables in this case include respondent’s age, highest school grade completed, race and ethnicity, currently employed, and family income from prior month. Answer: When it comes to descriptive statistics, one of the most important things is to make sure that all the variables are appropriately defined (Grove et al., 2020). This includes making sure that all the data is measured in the same way, and that there is a clear definition for each variable. If certain variables are not properly defined, it can lead to inaccurate results and potentially flawed conclusions. So it is crucial to take the time to define all the variables before beginning any kind of statistical analysis.*

**Part I**

**Table 1: ****Respondent’s Age**

*Table 1 indicates the descriptive statistics for the respondent’s age. A total of 1000 respondents too part in the study. The minimum age of the respondents was 19.378 years while the maximum age was 49.43 years. The average age of the respondents was 36.64 years. The standard deviation from the mean was 6.1987.*

**Table 2: Highest School Grade Completed**

*Out of the 1000 respondents interviewed, 11 individuals did not provide the data on the highest school grade completed. However, for the respondents who provided this data, the minimum school grade completed is 1 while the maximum grade is 16. The mean school grade completed was 11.2 with a standard deviation of 1.561.*

**Table 3: Race and Ethnicity**

*Table 3 indicates race and ethnicity for the study respondents. From the table, majority of the respondents were black, not Hispanic. This race constituted 80.3% of the respondents. Only one person failed to reveal race or ethnicity during the study. A total of 1000 people were asked about their race and ethnicity. Hispanic, White, not Hispanic, and others constituted, 12.8%, 5.3%, and 1.4% respectively.*

**Table 4: Currently Employed**

*Table 4 shows the descriptive statistic on the employment status for the respondents involved in the study. Out of 1000 respondents interviewed, only two respondents failed to reveal their employment status or the data was missing. 45.3% (452 respondents) of the respondents were employed while 54.7% (546 respondents) were unemployed.*

**Part II**

**Graph 1: Respondent’s age at the time of interview**

*Graph 1 indicates a histogram for the respondent’s age at the time of interview. The graph shows a normal distribution of age data with a mean of 36.64 and a standard deviation of 6.199. The maximum age was 49.43 years while the minimum age was 19.378.*

**Graph 2: Highest School Grade Completed**

*Graph 2 indicates a normal distribution of data on highest school grade completed with a mean of 11.28 and a standard deviation of 1.561. The highest grade completed was 16 while the least grade was 1.*

**Part III**

**Table 5: Family Income**

*Table 5 indicates the family income for the respondents involved in the study process. Out of the 1000 respondents, only 895 revealed their family income. The family with the highest income received $6,595. The minimum income was $0. In other words, there were respondents who came from the family with no income. Out of the 895 respondents, the average family income was $1,172.59 with a standard deviation of $788.153.*

**Graph 3: Family Income**

*Graph 3 shows that the data on family income prior month was normally distributed with a mean of $1,172.59 with a standard deviation of $788.153. The highest income was $6,595.*

**Conclusion**

*There are many purposes for frequency and descriptive statistics in data analysis. Some of the most common uses include exploring data, understanding relationships between variables, and making predictions. The minimum age of the respondents was 19.378 years while the maximum age was 49.43 years. The family with the highest income received $6,595. The minimum income was $0. In other words, there were respondents who came from the family with no income. 45.3% (452 respondents) of the respondents were employed while 54.7% (546 respondents) were unemployed.*

**Reference**

*Grove, S. K., Burns, N., & Gray, J. (2020). The practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence. Elsevier Health Sciences.*

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Assignment: Frequency and Descriptive Statistics

Imagine that you have collected data from 100 patients. You have carefully compiled vitals, pain scores, and medications for each of the patients. However, what does all of this data mean? Is your work now done?

How do we make data meaningful? Why must we move beyond the raw data to ensure that data is purposeful?

Descriptive analysis is the analysis of the data to develop meaning. Descriptive analysis provides meaning through showing, describing, and summarizing the data compiled to â€œreveal characteristics of the sample and to describe study variablesâ€ (Gray & Grove, 2020). This allows the researcher to present data in a more meaningful and simplified way.

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For this Assignment, summarize your interpretation of the descriptive statistics provided to you in the Week 4 Descriptive Statistics SPSS Output document. You will evaluate each variable in your analysis.

Reference: Gray, J. R., & Grove, S. K. (2020). Burns and Groveâ€™s the practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (9th ed.). Elsevier.

To Prepare:

Review the Week 4 Descriptive Statistics SPSS Output provided in this weekâ€™s Learning Resources.

Review the Learning Resources on how to interpret descriptive statistics, including how to interpret research outcomes.

Consider the results presented in the SPSS output and reflect on how you might interpret the frequency distributions and the descriptive statistics presented.

The Assignment: (2â€“3 pages)

Summarize your interpretation of the frequency data provided in the output for respondentâ€™s age, highest school grade completed, and family income from prior month.

Note: A frequency analysis is way of summarizing data by depicting the number of times a data value occurs in the data table or output. It is used to analyze the data set including where the data are concentrated or clustered, the range of values, observation of extreme values, and to determine intervals for analysis that could make sense in categorizing your variable values.

Summarize your interpretation of the descriptive statistics provided in the output for respondentâ€™s age, highest school grade completed, race and ethnicity, currently employed, and family income from prior month.

Note: The descriptive analysis includes N (size of your sample), the mean, the median, the standard deviation, the size and spread of your data to determine the variability/variance in your data.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates/general#s-lg-box-20293632). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

By Day 7

Submit your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 4.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

Please save your Assignment using the naming convention â€œWK4Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)â€ as the name.

Click the Week 4 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.

Click the Week 4 Assignment link. You will also be able to â€œView Rubricâ€ for grading criteria from this area.

Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as â€œWK4Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)â€ and click Open.

If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.

Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

Summarize your interpretation of the frequency data provided in the output for respondentâ€™s age, highest school grade completed, and family income from prior month.

32 (32%) – 35 (35%)

The response accurately and clearly explains, in detail, a summary of the frequency distributions for the variables presented.

The response accurately and clearly explains, in detail, the number of times the value occurs in the data.

The response accurately and clearly explains, in detail, the appearance of the data, the range of data values, and an explanation of extreme values in describing intervals that sufficiently provides an analysis that fully supports the categorization of each variable value.

The response includes relevant, specific, and appropriate examples that fully support the explanations provided for each of the areas described.

28 (28%) – 31 (31%)

The response accurately summarizes the frequency distributions for the variables presented.

The response accurately explains the number of times the value occurs in the data.

The response accurately explains the appearance of the data, the range of data values, and explains extreme values in describing intervals that provides an analysis which supports the categorization of each variable value.

The response includes relevant, specific, and accurate examples that support the explanations provided for each of the areas described.

25 (25%) – 27 (27%)

The response inaccurately or vaguely summarizes the frequency distributions for the variables presented.

The response inaccurately or vaguely explains the number of times the value occurs in the data.

The response inaccurately or vaguely explains the appearance of the data, the range of data values, and inaccurately or vaguely explains extreme values.

An analysis that may support the categorization of each variable value is inaccurate or vague.

The response includes inaccurate and irrelevant examples that may support the explanations provided for each of the areas described.

0 (0%) – 24 (24%)

The response inaccurately and vaguely summarizes the frequency distributions for the variables presented, or it is missing.

The response inaccurately and vaguely explains the number of times the value occurs in the data, or it is missing.

The response inaccurately and vaguely explains the appearance of the data, the range of data values, and an explanation of extreme values, or it is missing.

An analysis that does not support the categorization of each variable values is provided, or it is missing.

The response includes inaccurate and vague examples that do not support the explanations provided for each of the areas described, or it is missing.

Summarize your interpretation of the descriptive statistics provided in the output for respondentâ€™s age, highest school grade completed, race and ethnicity, currently employed, and family income from prior month.

45 (45%) – 50 (50%)

The response accurately and clearly summarizes in detail the interpretation of the descriptive statistics provided.

The response accurately and clearly evaluates in detail each of the variables presented, including an accurate and complete description of the sample size, the mean, the median, standard deviation, and the size and spread of the data.

40 (40%) – 44 (44%)

The response accurately summarizes the interpretation of the descriptive statistics provided.

The response accurately explains evaluates each of the variables presented, including an accurate description of the sample size, the mean, the median, standard deviation, and the size and spread of the data.

35 (35%) – 39 (39%)

The response inaccurately or vaguely summarizes the interpretation of the descriptive statistics provided.

The response inaccurately or vaguely evaluates each of the variables presented, including an inaccurate or vague description of the sample size, the mean, the median, the standard deviation, and the size and spread of the data.

0 (0%) – 34 (34%)

The response inaccurately and vaguely summarizes the interpretation of the descriptive statistics provided, or it is missing.

The response inaccurately and vaguely evaluates each of the variables presented, including an inaccurate and vague description of the sample size, the mean, the median, the standard deviation, and the size and spread of the data, or it is missing.

Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization:

Paragraphs make clear points that support well-developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focusedâ€”neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement and introduction is provided which delineates all required criteria.

5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity.

A clear and comprehensive purpose statement, introduction, and conclusion is provided which delineates all required criteria.

4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time.

Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment is stated, yet is brief and not descriptive.

3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60%â€“79% of the time.

Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment is vague or off topic.

0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity < 60% of the time.

No purpose statement, introduction, or conclusion was provided.

Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards:

Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation

5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors.

4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Contains a few (1 or 2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

Contains several (3 or 4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

Contains many (â‰¥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the readerâ€™s understanding.

Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list.

5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Uses correct APA format with no errors.

4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Contains a few (1 or 2) APA format errors.

3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

Contains several (3 or 4) APA format errors.

0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

Contains many (â‰¥ 5) APA format errors.

Total Points: 100

Name: NURS_8201_Week4_Assignment_Rubric

Week 4 Descriptive Statistics Exercises SPSS Output

Part I

Respondentâ€™s Age

Descriptive Statistics

N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Skewness

Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Std. Error

Respondent’s age at time of

interview

1000 19.378 49.430 36.63733 6.198741 -.374 .077

Valid N (listwise) 1000

Highest School Grade Completed

Descriptive Statistics

N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Skewness

Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Std. Error

Highest school grade

completed

989 1 16 11.28 1.561 -.727 .078

Valid N (listwise) 989

Race and Ethnicity

Race/ethnicity

Frequency Percent Valid Percent

Cumulative

Percent

Valid Black, not Hispanic 803 80.3 80.5 80.5

Hispanic 128 12.8 12.8 93.3

White, not Hispanic 53 5.3 5.3 98.6

Other 14 1.4 1.4 100.0

Total 998 99.8 100.0

Missing Refused 1 .1

DK 1 .1

Total 2 .2

Total 1000 100.0

Currently Employed

Currently employed?

Frequency Percent Valid Percent

Cumulative

Percent

Valid No 546 54.6 54.7 54.7

Yes 452 45.2 45.3 100.0

Total 998 99.8 100.0

Missing System 2 .2

Total 1000 100.0