Global Health Comparison Matrix Paper

Global Health Comparison Matrix Paper

Global Health Comparison Matrix Paper

Global Health Comparison  Sample Paper

Health care issues like access and coverage affect the overall health of the world population. According to the World Health Organization, attainment of a universal health coverage (UHC) is critical to improving a country’s population and access to health services. The need for universal health coverage (UHC) implores nations, both developed and developing, to initiate policies and frameworks that allow their citizens to have access to affordable and quality care (Milstead & Short, 2019). The enactment of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) in 2010 heralded a new chapter in the provision of care for millions of uninsured Americans. While the United States lags behind her peers in provision of UHC, the ACA passage and implementation demonstrates that all people, irrespective of their status, need health care services. The purpose of this health comparison matrix is to compare efforts by the U.S. and Canada to have UHC for their populations. The comparison considers the policies and how they can attain UHC and provides a narrative statement to advocate for UHC in the United States like in Canada.

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Global Healthcare Issue Universal Health Coverage
Description According to the World Health Organization (WHO), UHC implies that all individuals and communities get health services they require without incurring financial burden or hardship. UHC includes the full spectrum of essential, quality health service, health promotion and disease prevention activities, treatment, rehabilitation and even palliative care for those with chronic conditions. WHO (2021) asserts that for nations to deliver UHC, they need adequate and competent health and care workers who possess skills mix at facility, outreach and community level, and are distributed equitably with sufficient support and have descent work environment. In this case, the comparison is between UHC in Canada and efforts through ACA by the U.S. to have universal health coverage.
Country United States


Describe the policy in each country related to the identified healthcare issue The U.S. does not offer a universal health coverage. However, the Affordable Care Act of 2010 and its subsequent amendments focuses on the realization of a UHC model for many Americans, particularly from low-income households and communities among the racial minorities (Courtemanche et al., 2018). ACA focuses in increasing access to healthcare, improving quality, and lowering the cost of care for millions without medical cover. The federal government finances over 90% of the ACA for states that participate in the program. The Canadian Medicare is the country’s universal and publicly funded health care coverage. The Canada Health Act of 1984 established Medicare. Provincial and territorial health insurance plans meet certain requirements to be eligible for full federal funding under the program. These include being publicly administered, comprehensive in covering conditions, universal, portable across the provinces and territories, accessible without user’s fees (The Commonwealth, 2020).
What are the strengths of this policy? The primary strengths of this policy is expansion of health coverage to low income individuals, increased access to health care services, covers preexisting conditions, focuses on primary care promotion and prevention (Courtemanche et al., 2018). Dependents also use their parents’ coverage. The ACA does not have any limitations on benefits for members.

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In their article, Martin et al. (2018) assert that the Canadian UHC’s main strengths include portability where one can transfer their coverage to different provinces and territories, covers the public at 100% and ensures free access to a basket of services. The other strength is that it is highly decentralized and values diversity in the population, particularly for Indigenous peoples. Public coverage of the policy is 100% as all attain automatic coverage through the Medicare which is funded and administered by provinces and territories.  
What are the weaknesses of this policy? The implementation of ACA has some weak area that include rising cost of premiums, mandatory contribution that necessitates penalties, and non-compliance in some states like Texas.






The policy has no nationally defined statutory benefit package. Provincial and territorial governments made decision on coverage in collaboration with the medical providers or professionals (Santhanam, 2020). Imperatively, coverage varies across the plans in based on the area for services that are not funded by the federal government. These include prescription drugs, home care, midwifery services, mental and dental care among others.
Explain how the social determinants of health may impact the specified global health issue. (Be specific and provide examples)


Individuals and governments fail to implement UHC because of different factors that impact people’s lives. The social determinants of health (SDOH) affect coverage to ACA and the need for UHC because some families cannot afford even the least premiums. Many people from the low-income settings had no coverage before the enactment of the ACA (Courtemanche et al., 2018). Through the ACA, over 20 million people with poor SDOH, could now have access to health insurance coverage. The implementation of UHC in Canada provides benefits to millions of people, especially those from low-income households and Indigenous racial minorities. For instance, individuals based on their age and without any discrimination can access a host of services to improve their overall health conditions (The Commonwealth, 2020). The implication is that the UHC in Canada is impacted by different SDOH and the overall accessibility to care for millions of beneficiaries.
How has each country’ government addressed cost, quality, and access to the selected global health issue? The U.S. has addressed the cost, quality, access to healthcare through the ACA based on its components like Medicare, prescription drugs, preexisting conditions, and the focus on primary care and health promotion. 



The Canadian federal government has decentralized the UHC so that provinces and territories and their governments in collaboration with health professionals, organizations and providers can make decisions about accessibility and associated aspects of care provision.
How has the identified health policy impacted the health of the global population? (Be specific and provide examples) The implementation of the ACA is critical to the global population’s health as it means that more people access quality care to reduce disparities and improve overall health conditions. This implies that the global population’s health is better and focused on preventive measure and primary health promotion to reduce cost burden, prevalence and increased resources to provide treatment interventions. The UHC in Canada ensures that all Canadians have access to quality and affordable care. This improves the health of the global population as it means that less people lead poor quality lives. The UHC complies with efforts by WHO to reduce the prevalence of different health conditions, especially through preventive measures.
Describe the potential impact of the identified health policy on the role of nurse in each country. The ACA policy has significant impacts on the role of nurses as it creates new delivery models in the healthcare systems. These models imply that nurses have increased responsibilities and role as primary care providers and patient educators (Tao et al., 2020). The implication is that nurses must increase their focus on disease prevention and patient education in their communities and practice settings. Under the UHC policy, nurses have increased roles as primary care providers and patient advocates. They work with provincial and territorial governments to develop effective interventions within the UHC framework to deliver quality care to millions of Canadians (Santhanam, 2020). The implication is that the UHC increases the role of nurses in health care provision.
Explain how global health issues impact local healthcare organizations and policies in both countries. (Be specific and provide examples) UHC affects local healthcare organizations and policies in the U.S. as it means that while the ACA offers a wide range of opportunities to be insured, the country does not have universal health care coverage. Local organizations and policies should focus on how the U.S. can have a universal health coverage for all its people like in Canada and other developed nations (Tao et al., 2020). For instance, the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated the need for the U.S. to increase its coverage as it experienced the highest death toll in the world due to its health care system.   The UHC in Canada means that all organizations and policies must align with the provisions of the act that established it (The Commonwealth, 2020). This implies that local organizations should work in collaboration with governments at provincial and territorial levels to develop interventions based on their population needs.
General Notes/Comments The ACA is an effective policy that the U.S. can leverage to attain UHC as mandated by the WHO. The adoption of a UHC will allow Canada to offer better interventions for its diverse population. The UHC in Canada guarantees Canadians access to quality, affordable and safe care. The policy should increase its benefits to ensure that more Canadians prefer it as opposed to private health coverage plans that still exist in the market.

Part 2: Narrative Statement

An analytical approach to the two policies shows the critical roles that nurses can play to evaluate and review the impacts that they have on care provision and health of the population. The integration of a global perspective, implementation on local level and advocacy for social change are critical aspects of this policy approach (Milstead & Short, 2019). In this case, nurses can advocate for the integration of a global approach based on their role as nurses and in their practice. A global perspective implies that one focuses on best evidence and practice interventions to improve the delivery of health for the local population. Imperatively, nurse leaders need broader perspectives that enable them to integrate and use best evidence aimed at increasing accessibility, lowering the cost burden, and improving quality of care. Therefore, through a global perspective, I will incorporate effective approaches to enhance access and implore local leaders to embrace such approaches to improve overall care delivery.

Possessing a global perspective would impact my practice as it will imply providing quality and cost-effective and value-based care. As a leader, I would integrate best practices in different areas, especially in psychiatric mental health, where many people require mental health care to deal with different issues. I will also implore my unit nurses to deploy evidence-based practice (EBP) interventions to improve mental health care quality and accessibility.

The integration of a global perspective will represent and contribute to social change in various ways. These include advocacy for policy changes and positions to support patient care by assisting them to understand their health care needs and improvement of social determinants of health like the level of education and incomes (Milstead & Short, 2019). Furthermore, I will integrate the social approach to address healthcare challenges to improve their acceptance through the generation of local solutions to address any condition experienced by the population and individuals in need of health or medical interventions.


The global health comparison matrix and the social change narrative show the critical role that nurses play and their need to understand healthcare issues; both locally and internationally, to develop effective solutions that can address identified practice challenges or issues in their settings. Nurse leaders and practitioners need a global perspective even to integrate EBP and get best approaches to care delivery. The need for social change cannot be overemphasized as illustrated by a comparison of the two countries’ approach to universal health coverage (UHC).


Courtemanche, C., Marton, J., Ukert, B., Yelowitz, A., & Zapata, D. (2018). Effects of the Affordable Care Act on health

care access and self-assessed health after 3 years. INQUIRY: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing, 55, 0046958018796361.

Martin, D., Miller, A. P., Quesnel-Vallée, A., Caron, N. R., Vissandjée, B., & Marchildon, G. P. (2018). Canada’s universal

health-care system: achieving its potential. The Lancet, 391(10131), 1718-1735. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30181-8

Milstead, J. A., & Short, N. M. (2019). Health policy and politics: A nurse’s guide (6th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones &

            Bartlett Learning.

Santhanam, L. (2020 August 31). How Canada got universal health care and what the U.S. could learn.


Tao, W., Zeng, Z., Dang, H., Lu, B., Chuong, L., Yue, D., … & Kominski, G. F. (2020). Towards universal health coverage:

lessons from 10 years of healthcare reform in China. BMJ Global Health, 5(3), e002086.

The Commonwealth (2020 June 5). International Health Care System Profiles Canada.


World Health Organization (WHO) (2021 April 1). Universal health coverage (UHC).

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Review the World Health Organization (WHO) global health agenda and select one global health issue to focus on for this Assignment.
Select at least one additional country to compare to the U.S. for this Assignment.
Reflect on how the global health issue you selected is approached in the U.S. and in the additional country you selected.
Review and download the Global Health Comparison Matrix provided in the Resources.
The Assignment: (1- to 2-page Global Health Comparison Matrix; 1-page Plan for Social Change)

Part 1: Global Health Comparison Matrix

Focusing on the country you selected and the U.S., complete the Global Health Comparison Matrix. Be sure to address the following:

Consider the U.S. national/federal health policies that have been adapted for the global health issue you selected from the WHO global health agenda. Compare these policies to the additional country you selected for study.
Explain the strengths and weaknesses of each policy.
Explain how the social determinants of health may impact the global health issue you selected. Be specific and provide examples.
Using the WHO’s Organization’s global health agenda as well as the results of your own research, analyze how each country’s government addresses cost, quality, and access to the global health issue selected.
Explain how the health policy you selected might impact the health of the global population. Be specific and provide examples.
Explain how the health policy you selected might impact the role of the nurse in each country.
Explain how global health issues impact local healthcare organizations and policies in both countries. Be specific and provide examples.
Part 2: A Plan for Social Change

Reflect on the global health policy comparison and analysis you conducted in Part 1 of the Assignment and the impact that global health issues may have on the world, the U.S., your community, as well as your practice as a nurse leader.

In a 1-page response, create a plan for social change that incorporates a global perspective or lens into your local practice and role as a nurse leader.

Explain how you would advocate for the incorporation of a global perspective or lens into your local practice and role as a nurse leader.
Explain how the incorporation of a global perspective or lens might impact your local practice and role as a nurse leader.
Explain how the incorporation of a global perspective or lens into your local practice as a nurse leader represents and contributes to social change. Be specific and provide examples

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