HLT 306V Advanced Patient Care Essay

HLT 306V Advanced Patient Care Essay

HLT 306V Advanced Patient Care Essay

HLT-306 Homework Topic 5

Definition of CAM

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a range of therapeutic interventions and practices that are not considered part of conventional medicine. Complementary and alternative medicine modalities are classified into five main categories and include; alternative medical systems, biologically based treatments, manipulative and body-based methods, mind-body interventions, and energy therapies (Liu et al., 2021). Integration of complementary and alternative medicine into orthodox medicine is associated with better quality of care and patient outcomes.

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Patients With Frequent Use of CAM

There is variability in the use of CAM among diverse patient populations across the globe. The use of CAM is determined by a range of socioeconomic, demographic, and health indicators (Fjær et al., 2020). Females, individuals from higher socioeconomic status, middle-aged and elderly individuals, those with higher education levels, and those with chronic lifelong medical conditions or ill health are more likely to use CAM (Fjær et al., 2020). Patients with dissatisfaction with conventional medicine also tend to prefer CAM instead. Employment and prior healthcare utilization are also positive predictors of CAM use.

Misconceptions about CAM

Some myths and misconceptions that surround CAM. CAM cannot be tested scientifically in one such misconception. Several studies have been conducted to show the effectiveness of CAM. Some believe CAM can exclusively be used as an alternative to orthodox medicine. This is not true since CAM is used to complement conventional evidence-based practices. There is a popular belief that CAM is used by a minority of the population which is not the case since there is widespread adoption of the use of CAM among diverse patient populations. There is also a misconception that CAM is not effective but a mere placebo which is not true.

Inclusion of the Use of CAM in Patient Education

A provider should initiate discussions on and directly enquire about the use of CAM during patient contact. Patients already using it, should be enlightened on the importance of integrating CAM into conventional medicine.  There is also a need to emphasize compliance with clinical recommendations since CAM is not an alternative to orthodox medicine. Issues of safety should be discussed to avoid adverse patient outcomes (Stubbe et al., 2018). This should be implemented at an individual level or in targeted patient groups through in-person discussions, campaigns, or the use of technology.

Safe Use of CAM

There are pertinent concerns about the use of CAM due to the lack of safety information in these modalities. A combination of CAM and conventional medications can result in serious drug interactions that may be catastrophic to the patient (Mora et al., 2022). The treatment plan of the patient should be reviewed and integration of CAM implemented after confirmation of their safety. Strategies such as healthcare professional and patient awareness programs addressing the safety of CAM should also be put in place.

Integration of Conventional Medicine and CAM

Integration of CAM into conventional medicine improves the quality of patient care. Strategies have been put in place to enhance integration. These include raising awareness of CAM among healthcare providers through targeted training and the inclusion of CAM in the medical school curriculum (Mwaka et al., 2019). Healthcare facilities can also employ alternative care providers to offer specific effective alternative care services. Referral services to CAM providers should also be available for efficiency of care. Measures should be implemented to mitigate any barriers to the successful integration of CAM.

Ethical Theories, Ethical Principles, and Values

Ethical theories are concepts and frameworks that provide guidelines on acceptable ethic-based decisions and actions. Ethical principles are moral judgments and rules that justify an individual’s actions. In clinical practice, ethical principles dictate that healthcare professionals should not harm the patient, acts in the best interest of the patient, and respect the patient’s preferences and values (Varkey et al., 2020). Ethical values are universal rules of conduct that form a practical basis for identifying what kinds of actions, intentions, and motives are valued (Haddad et al., 2022). These concepts are essential in the healthcare setting in dealing with clinical dilemmas and guiding complex decision-making regarding patient care.

Ethical Issues in Patient Education and Compliance

Several issues exist in patient education and compliance. The confidentiality and the privacy of the patient may be breached leading to access to patient information by unauthorized persons. Patient autonomy in decisions regarding the preferred interventions may not be respected with the use of force or coercion.  Withholding important information from the patient may lead to decisions that are not informed. Harm may be inflicted upon the patient if the clinical information and recommendations provided do not conform with best practice guidelines. Injustice can also occur if patients do not receive required services due to discrimination, for example based on their race. A poor patient-provider relationship may facilitate the incidence of such ethical issues thus the need to maintain a good trusting patient-provider partnership.  

Ethical Patient Education Practices

Ethical patient education practices are measures taken to provide patient education that conforms to the patient’s rights. The rights stem from the core ethical principles of patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, justice, patient-provider fiduciary (trusting) relationship, and inviolability of human life (Olejarczyk et al., 2022). This should apply to all patients without bias to improve health and self-efficacy in their care.

The purpose of Informed Consent

Obtaining informed consent is a legal and ethical obligation of every healthcare professional before any intervention or procedure. Informed consent is meant to enlighten the participant on the nature of the intended intervention, its risks and benefits, and the available alternatives (Shah et al., 2022). This information is meant to help the patient voluntarily make an informed choice based on their preference without coercion. The patient should have the competence to make reasonable decisions to partake in the informed consent process. This way, there is conformity to the ethical principle of patient autonomy.

Factors Affecting the Patient’s Ability to Give Informed Consent

The patient’s ability to give informed consent can be facilitated or impeded by certain factors.  These factors include the extent of information disclosure, the competency of the patient in making decisions, and the voluntary nature of the decision to be made (Shah et al., 2022). No important information that can significantly affect the decision should be intentionally withheld from the patient. Advanced directives and health proxies will be relied on. The decision should be voluntary and the patient can terminate the interventions without consequences.

Informed Consent Form Sample

I, _____________________________ hereby consent to undergo the surgical procedure namely_____________________________.

The nature, benefits, expected risks, and purpose of the procedure has been duly explained to me by ___________________________________ .

The procedure shall be performed by:______________________ on:___________________

I also consent to anesthetic administration and additional or alternative surgical measures as deemed necessary during the procedure.

Patient’s Name: ____________________Patient’s Signature: ______________

Date: _______________

Communication Process When Obtaining Informed Consent

The informed consent should be carried out openly and simply to avoid misunderstandings. The healthcare professional begins by disclosing relevant information that is sufficient to inform a decision, then helps the process and understand the information and elicits the preferred interventions settled on by the patient (Hoverd et al., 2021). The healthcare professional should be, truthful, supportive, and patient throughout the process. 


Fjær, E., Landet, E., McNamara, C., & Eikemo, T. (2020). The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Europe. BMC Complementary Medicine And Therapies, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-02903-w

Haddad, L. M., & Geiger, R. A. (2022). Nursing Ethical Considerations. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing.

Hoverd, E., Staniszewska, S., & Dale, J. (2021). The informed consent process in health research with under-served populations: a realist review protocol. Systematic Reviews, 10(1), 103. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-021-01652-2

Mora, D. C., Kristoffersen, A. E., Overvåg, G., Jong, M. C., Mentink, M., Liu, J., & Stub, T. (2022). Safety of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) treatment among children and young adults who suffer from adverse effects of conventional cancer treatment: A systematic review. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 21, 153473542211055. https://doi.org/10.1177/15347354221105563

Mwaka, A. D., Tusabe, G., Garimoi, C. O., Vohra, S., & Ibingira, C. (2019). Integration of traditional and complementary medicine into medical school curricula: A survey among medical students in Makerere University, Uganda. BMJ Open, 9(9). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-030316

Liu, L., Tang, Y., Baxter, G., Yin, H., & Tumilty, S. (2021). Complementary and alternative medicine – practice, attitudes, and knowledge among healthcare professionals in New Zealand: an integrative review. BMC Complementary Medicine And Therapies, 21(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-021-03235-z

Olejarczyk, J. P., & Young, M. (2022). Patient Rights And Ethics. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing.

Shah, P., Thornton, I., Turrin, D., & Hipskind, J. E. (2022). Informed Consent. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing.

Stubbe, D. E. (2018). Complementary and alternative medicine: If you don’t ask, they won’t tell. FOCUS, 16(1), 60–62. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.focus.20170052

Varkey, B. (2020). Principles of clinical ethics and their application to practice. Medical Principles and Practice, 30(1), 17–28. https://doi.org/10.1159/000509119

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Assessment Description
Write a short (50-100-word) paragraph response for each question posed below. Submit this assignment as a Microsoft Word document.

Define CAM.
Describe the patient who uses CAM the most.
List some common misconceptions about CAM.
Identify methods of including the use of CAM in patient education.
Discuss the safe use of CAM.
List ways in which conventional medicine and CAM can be integrated.
Define ethical theories, ethical principles, and values.
Provide examples of ethical issues in patient education and compliance, and describe ways in which an effective professional/patient relationship and a poor health professional/patient relationship can impact these issues.
Explain what is meant by “ethical patient education practices”.
Explain the purpose of informed consent.
Discuss what factors determine the patient’s ability to give informed consent.
Compose a sample informed consent form. .
Discuss the process of communication to use with the patient and the family when obtaining informed consent.

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