NRS-434VN Topic 1: The Health Assessment of Infants

NRS-434VN Topic 1: The Health Assessment of Infants

NRS-434VN Topic 1: The Health Assessment of Infants

Slide 1: Title Slide

Slide 2: Introduction

Infants are a group of the population with crucial care needs. Their age and immature immune systems place them at an increased risk of health problems in their environment. However, environmental factors may act as a source of threat to their health and safety. Accordingly, issues such as air pollution increases their risk of developing health problems such as respiratory diseases at an early age. Parents, families, and communities have the responsibility of ensuring the adoption of measures that minimize the exposure of infants to environmental hazards. Strategies such as advocating for environmental health and creating safe environments at home are effective (Chen et al., 2021; Gouveia et al., 2018). Therefore, this presentation examines the effect of air pollution on infants’ health and safety.

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Slide 3: Air Pollution

            The selected environmental factor that affects the health and safety of the infants is air pollution. Air pollution refers to the release of man-made and natural substances to the air that we breathe. The substances are toxic in nature, predisposing human beings to health problems.  Polluted air has harmful components such as dust, pollen, and carbon dioxide, which contribute to the development of health problems. Air pollution can either be indoors or outdoors. Indoors air pollution arises from the activities that people undertake in their homes. This includes burning fuel and smoking among others. Outdoor air pollution arises from external sources such as dust, factories, and burning of fuels. Combined, indoor and outdoor air pollution act as crucial sources of health risks to the infants. The rate of air pollution has been rising significantly over the years due to industrialization. As a result, air pollution has become a crucial public health concern for the global populations (Chen et al., 2021; Gouveia et al., 2018).

Slide 4: Effects on Infant’s Health and Safety

            Air pollution has adverse effects on infants’ health and safety. One of them is increasing the risk of adverse outcomes during pregnancy. Air pollution has been associated with adverse outcomes during pregnancy such as low birth weight, premature birth, abnormal birth length, intrauterine growth retardation, and small for gestational age infants. The other effect is the increased risk for premature mortality. Air pollution has been associated with an increased risk of sudden infant death as well as mortality due to complications of respiratory and cardiac complications. The risk of birth defects also increases with exposure to air pollutants. For example, prenatal exposure to carbon monoxide increases the risk of cardiac septal defects while the risk of aortic artery and valve defects increase with octane exposure. Air pollution also has adverse respiratory outcomes. It increases the risk of asthma, upper and lower respiratory tract infections, and deficits in lung function (Chen et al., 2021; Gouveia et al., 2018).

Slide 5: Cont’

            Air pollution also alter the immunity of the infants. The immune system does not get adequate time to mature and defend the infants from other infections. Pollution also suppresses host immunity, cellular, and humoral immunity, affecting the health and wellbeing of the infants. Air pollution also increases the risk of vitamin D-deficiencies in infants and children. The reduction in solar radiation due to high levels of air pollution predisposes children to developing rickets due to inadequate vitamin D. Air pollutants also slow the normal maturation and development of infants’ lungs during the post-natal period. This can be seen in the reduction in the amount of surfactant produced to meet the infants’ physiological needs. As a result, infants are likely to be affected by respiratory tract infections as they grow. The risk of other adverse health outcomes at the later stages of growth also increases when infants are exposed to air pollutants. An example is the fact that the risk of heart diseases has been shown to be high in infants exposed to air pollutants as compared to those not exposed (Chen et al., 2021; Gouveia et al., 2018).

Slide 6: Health Promotion Plan

            An effective health promotion plan that can be adopted to help parents and caregivers to address infant exposure to air pollution is healthcare providers working with them to develop and adopt strategies to prevent infant exposure to the hazard. Nurses and other healthcare providers can collaborate with families and parents in exploring effective approaches to eliminate indoor air pollution for infant health and safety. Healthcare providers can also raise their awareness about impact, sources, and prevention of air pollution. This will enhance the safety and health of the infants through the creation of healthy environments. Parents, families, and communities can also be involved in activities that create healthy environments. An example is their participation in safe disposal of wastes the contribute to air pollution for optimum health and wellbeing. Healthcare providers can also encourage caregivers and families to engage in public health campaigns aiming at addressing air pollution. This will enhance the adoption of policies that prioritize the health and wellbeing of the vulnerable (Schraufnagel et al., 2019; Tainio et al., 2021).

Slide 7: Accident Prevention and Safety Promotion

            Several strategies can be explored to prevent accidents and promote infant safety in terms of air pollution. One of them is ensuring that nobody smokes when close to infants or when indoor. Indoor smoking is associated with smoke and nicotine particles that infants can inhale to cause health problems. Families and others should smoke outside homes and ensure hand washing before coming into contact with the infants. The other strategy for safety promotion is ensuring adequate ventilation at homes. Adequate ventilation is important to ensure the free flow of air at homes. It also facilitates the removal of harmful particles from the indoor environment. Families and communities should be educated about the importance of not burning fuels when close to infants. Fuels release large amounts of carbon dioxide, which is harmful to infants. The last safety promotion strategy is limiting infant exposure to outdoor air (Schraufnagel et al., 2019; Tainio et al., 2021). A significant proportion of the outdoor air is polluted. Therefore, minimizing infant’s exposure to outdoor air will contribute to their health and safety.

Slide 8: Examples, Interventions, and Suggestions

            Evidence-based strategies can be adopted to prevent air pollution in our communities. One of them is the active role that the government plays in setting rules, policies, and regulations for ensuring air quality. Governments have implemented policies that reduce and eliminate the potential sources of air pollution such as industries and burning fuels. The other evidence-based strategy is using clean sources of energy. The overreliance on fossil fuels as source of energy has increased air pollution in the modern world. Solutions such as using hydro and wind power have proven effective in minimizing air pollution. As a result, countries should consider these alternatives to promote air quality. Families, individuals, and communities should also prevent and minimize fires (Gouveia et al., 2018). Fires cause release of carbon to the environment, which is a pollutant. Similarly, the use of pesticides and herbicides in farms should be minimized to lower the risk and rate of infant and population exposure to air pollutants.

Slide 9: Community Resources

            Community resources can be utilized to address the issue of air pollution. One of such resources is the New York State Pollution Prevention Institute. The institute was established with the aim of supporting the discovery and adoption of cost-effective approaches to energy conservation, waste reduction, and community and business sustainability in New York. The institute collaborates with communities to identify effective practices and use of efficient technologies to ensure energy conservation. The institute’s support has seen a drastic reduction in the use of energy sources that contribute to air pollution. One can access the institute through its website (, n.d.). The other community resource is Illinois Coalition for Clean Air & Water (ICCAW). ICCAW is a coalition of community groups and farmers that came together to advocate for sound practices and policies that protect the environment, rural quality of life, and human health. The coalition ensures the use of safest practices in livestock production, large scale industrialization, and mechanization in Illinois. One can get involved in the organization by supporting its initiatives.

Slide 10: National and Web Resources

            An example of a national resource that can be used in addressing air pollution is the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA is an institution tasked with the responsibility of ensuring environmental health and safety. It also provides a collection of resources, technical information, and strategies to preventing and reducing air pollution. It also offers insights into technologies, science, and measurements that have been put in place to address air pollution. One can access the resources they need through its database (US EPA, n.d.). An example of an online web resource that can be used in exploring strategies to prevent air pollution is the World Health Organization’s website on air pollution. The website provides crucial insights about sources, effects, and prevention of air pollution. It also focuses on the effects of air pollution on infants’ safety and health (WHO, 2022). 

Slide 11: Conclusion

Slide 12: References

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Assessment Description
The growth, development, and learned behaviors that occur during the first year of infancy have a direct effect on the individual throughout a lifetime. For this assignment, research an environmental factor that poses a threat to the health or safety of infants and develop a health promotion that can be presented to parents and caregivers.

Create a 10-12-slide PowerPoint health promotion, with speaker notes, that outlines a teaching plan. For the presentation of your PowerPoint, use Loom to create a voice over or a video. Include an additional slide for the Loom link at the beginning, and an additional slide for references at the end.

In developing your PowerPoint, take into consideration the health care literacy level of your target audience, as well as the demographic of the caregiver/patient (socioeconomic level, language, culture, and any other relevant characteristic of the caregiver) for which the presentation is tailored.

Include the following in your presentation:

Describe the selected environmental factor. Explain how the environmental factor you selected can potentially affect the health or safety of infants.
Create a health promotion plan that can be presented to parents and caregivers to address the environmental factor and improve the overall health and well-being of infants.
Offer recommendations on accident prevention and safety promotion as they relate to the selected environmental factor and the health or safety of infants.
Offer examples, interventions, and suggestions from evidence-based research. At least three scholarly sources are required. Two of the three sources must be peer-reviewed and no more than 5 years old.
Provide readers with four resources: two community resources, one national resource, and one web-based resource. Include a brief description and contact information for each resource.
You are required to cite a minimum of three peer-reviewed sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years, appropriate for the assignment criteria, and relevant to nursing practice.

Refer to the resource, “Creating Effective PowerPoint Presentations,” located in the Student Success Center, for additional guidance on completing this assignment in the appropriate style.

Refer to the resource, “Loom,” located in the Student Success Center, for additional guidance on recording your presentation.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.


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