NURS 8400 Discussions Paper

NURS 8400 Discussions Paper

NURS 8400 Discussions Paper

Defining Social Problems

Social problems have profound implications on people’s health, productivity, and overall community progress. The low number of women receiving mammograms in the Appalachian region underlines the complexity of social problems and their impacts. Attitudes toward mammograms have been noted as a significant barrier to their regional intake. Negative attitudes toward health are common due to low health literacy, particularly in rural settings (Logan & Castañeda, 2020). Like other social problems, the negative attitudes toward mammograms can be addressed through a health promotion program.


I would share several insights with my team if I were engaged in planning for a program to address the negative attitudes toward mammograms in this region. Integral in program planning, the first insight would be the characteristics of the target population. As Smith et al. (2019) noted, communities are distinctively diverse in culture, values, beliefs, and religions. These differences shape their knowledge and attitudes toward health. The second insight would be the scale and distribution of the problem. Understanding the scope helps quantify the effort needed to address the problem. The third insight would be how widely the problem is recognized. Understanding it would help determine whether community education is crucial before implementing a solution.

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Approaches to understanding social problems affect program planning differently. An analytical approach emphasizes problem analysis based on existing theory and research. Its other critical element is a detailed profile of the target population in the community. Understanding the community needs ensures that the health program is need-based and problem-centered (Fry et al., 2018). The analytical approach also recommends approaches based on new and current understandings of the social problem and need. Consequently, such an approach could help to define the project scope, which is an essential component of program planning.


Fry, C. E., Nikpay, S. S., Leslie, E., & Buntin, M. B. (2018). Evaluating community-based health improvement programs. Health Affairs, 37(1), 22-29.

Logan, R. I., & Castañeda, H. (2020). Addressing health disparities in the rural United States: Advocacy as caregiving among community health workers and Promotores de Salud. International Journal of Environmental Research And Public Health, 17(24), 9223.

Smith, E. P., Witherspoon, D. P., Bhargava, S., & Bermudez, J. M. (2019). Cultural values and behavior among African American and European American children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 28, 1236–1249.

Health Promotion and Disease-Prevention Issue

Mental wellness is vital for all populations to live productively. Depression continues to hamper mental health and well-being, and communities’ vulnerability varies profoundly. Statistics show that approximately 21 million adults experience at least one episode of depression annually (National Institute of Mental Health, 2022). Among many populations where mental wellness can be improved through health education, young mothers are an interesting population due to their high vulnerability. Among young mothers, childbearing occurs at a critical stage characterized by massive physical and mental body changes (Agnafors et al., 2019). As a result, health promotion is vital to cushion young mothers from depression and related mental health risks.

The impact of depression is far-reaching from both economic and health perspectives. Projections on health spending demonstrate that depression is a massive economic burden since approximately $236.6 billion is spent on treating depression annually (Greenberg et al., 2021). Mental disorders also increase hospital visits, implying that they reduce a person’s time for engaging in economic activities. Depression also increases vulnerability to other health conditions like chronic disorders (Bobo et al., 2022). Since young mothers are highly vulnerable to depression, health promotion targeting them should be a priority for health care professionals, communities, and governments.

Questions Related to the Problem and Target Population

Kindly respond to the following questions to improve understanding of the health topic.

  1. Are there adequate programs targeting young mothers to improve their mental wellness to reduce the risk of depression?
  2. Besides health education, how can health care professionals address mental health among individuals and communities?
  3. Do you think the health needs of young mothers are understood in the community?


Agnafors, S., Bladh, M., Svedin, C. G., & Sydsjö, G. (2019). Mental health in young mothers, single mothers and their children. BMC Psychiatry, 19(1), 1-7.

Bobo, W. V.,

, B. R., Virani, S., St Sauver, J. L., Boyd, C. M., & Rocca, W. A. (2022). Association of depression and anxiety with the accumulation of chronic conditions. JAMA Network Open, 5(5), e229817-e229817. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.9817

Greenberg, P. E., Fournier, A. A., Sisitsky, T., Simes, M., Berman, R., Koenigsberg, S. H., & Kessler, R. C. (2021). The economic burden of adults with major depressive disorder in the United States (2010 and 2018). Pharmacoeconomics, 39(6), 653-665.

National Institute of Mental Health. (2022). Major depression. Model Evaluation

Health models provide a framework for implementing health interventions to achieve positive outcomes. The most appropriate model for exploring my health problem (mental wellness in young mothers) is the health belief model (HBM). HBM is established on the principle that individuals engage in health and health-related behaviors depending on their perception of susceptibility and threat of an illness (Badr et al., 2021). When modeling appropriate health behaviors, health care professionals help individuals and communities to understand the consequences of an illness and the benefits of engaging in disease-prevention activities. A similar approach can be used to promote mental wellness among young mothers. The objective should be changing their beliefs about mental wellness and helping them to understand the risks of depression and the benefits of self-care. Above all, the model helps health promoters to formulate both short-term and long-term health interventions.

HBM was initiated in public health. Sharma (2021) found that public health scientists in the United States developed HBM to explore the barriers hampering people’s participation in disease prevention strategies and activities for early detection. The model continues to be widely used within and outside nursing. Outside nursing, HBM is used in psychology to demonstrate the connection between motivation and action (Sari et al., 2018). Its use is extensive within nursing care and research. For instance, Shitu et al. (2022) et al. applied HBM to evaluate the low participation of students in COVID-19 prevention practices. In this study, perceived barriers TO COVID-19 preventive behaviors, susceptibility, and self-efficacy among students emerged as the leading predictors of health promotion behaviors. In response, behavioral change interventions were proposed to improve students’ participation in prevention practices. These findings underscore the importance of HBM in guiding health promotion by modeling positive behaviors among individuals.


Badr, H., Oluyomi, A., Woodard, L., Zhang, X., Raza, S. A., Adel Fahmideh, M., … & Amos, C. A. (2021). Sociodemographic and health belief model factors associated with nonadherence to COVID-19 mitigation strategies in the United States. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 55(7), 677-685.

Sari, S. A. A. Y., Indarto, D., & Wijaya, M. (2018). Application of health belief model on preventive behaviors of patients with low back pain. Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior, 3(3), 192-198.

Sharma, M. (2021). Theoretical foundations of health education and health promotion. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Shitu, K., Adugna, A., Kassie, A., & Handebo, S. (2022). Application of Health Belief Model for the assessment of COVID-19 preventive behavior and its determinants among students: A structural equation modeling analysis. PloS One, 17(3), e0263568.

Needs Assessment and Data Collection Methods

A needs assessment helps health promoters to understand a population’s characteristics and health needs. To better understand the problem and the target population, a mixed-methods needs assessment would be appropriate. The main reason behind a mixed-methods inquiry is to get sufficient information to facilitate an effective program design and implementation. Regnault et al. (2018) demonstrated a mixed-methods approach as combining quantitative and qualitative data to better understand and quantify variables. Since mental health is multifaceted, it is crucial to collect sufficient data to get insights into its effects and appropriately rate it to guide effective health promotion.

Data collection methods vary with the program’s design and the volume of data needed to guide health promotion. Accordingly, questionnaires, risk assessment forms, and checklists can be used together to collect quantitative and qualitative data. Questionnaires can help collect qualitative and quantitative data while closely interacting with the target population. The richness of the data can be improved by asking open-ended and closed-ended questions (Grønmo, 2019). Such data include young mothers’ understanding of mental wellness and depression and the health interventions they practice to optimize mental wellness. Risk assessment forms and checklists can be used to collect and rate variables such as depression severity and susceptibility levels.

Data collection challenges vary with the method and type of data collected. Potential challenges include biased results and participants’ refusal to participate in data collection. Biased results stem from a biased selection of participants and can be minimized by using a large sample (Haddad et al., 2022). Adequate communication to address fears and promote informed consent can be used to reduce resistance. In this case, participants should be adequately informed about the benefits of the program and why the data is needed and how it will be used.


Grønmo, S. (2019). Social research methods: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches. Sage.

Haddad, C., Sacre, H., Zeenny, R. M., Hajj, A., Akel, M., Iskandar, K., & Salameh, P. (2022). Should samples be weighted to decrease selection bias in online surveys during the COVID-19 pandemic? Data from seven datasets. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 22(1), 1-11.

Regnault, A., Willgoss, T., & Barbic, S. (2018). Towards the use of mixed methods inquiry as best practice in health outcomes research. Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes, 2(1), 1-4.

Involving the Target Population in the Program

Health promotion programs cannot be successfully implemented without engaging stakeholders and key decision-makers. One of the reasons for involving the representatives of the target population in developing the program goals and objectives is to promote a people-centered program. Walker et al. (2018) underlined the importance of stakeholder involvement in health programs to promote people-centeredness for collaborative decision-making. Such an approach allows program leaders and the target population to work together in goal-setting and other crucial phases of program implementation. The other reason for involving the target population’s representatives is to enhance understanding of the program’s goals and objectives. For health programs to succeed, their promoters should be wary of resistance that stems from inadequate knowledge of their benefits (Logan & Castañeda, 2020). Enhancing understanding can reduce possible resistance since the target population would be more aware of the program’s goals and benefits.

The target population’s representatives can be involved as active partners or beneficiaries. Either way, active communication, respect, and fairness are essential to facilitating involvement. Adequate and continuous communication is essential since it allows a program’s participants to express their views, ask appropriate questions, and receive feedback. As Kim (2022) observed, health programs’ participants are characteristically diverse in attitudes, beliefs, and expectations. Respect and embracing fairness should be prioritized when interacting with diverse groups.

Disagreements are typical in diverse groups with different expectations. Effective strategies for navigating disagreements or a lack of interest include shared decision-making, role delegation, and defining acceptable behaviors. Boaz et al. (2018) underlined the need for leadership that is not inclined to power when leading diverse people. Similarly, the group members should set goals and rules together and ensure that each participant is treated equally. Assigning roles increase engagement levels hence more interest in the program.


Boaz, A., Hanney, S., Borst, R., O’Shea, A., & Kok, M. (2018). How to engage stakeholders in research: Design principles to support improvement. Health Research Policy and Systems, 16(1), 1-9.

Kim, B. (2022). Commentary: Engaging healthcare staff and stakeholders in healthcare simulation modeling to better translate research into health impact: A systematic review. Frontiers in Health Services, 2, 982184.

Logan, R. I., & Castañeda, H. (2020). Addressing health disparities in the rural United States: Advocacy as caregiving among community health workers and Promotores de Salud. International Journal of Environmental Research And Public Health, 17(24), 9223.

Walker, E. R., Zahn, R., & Druss, B. G. (2018). Applying a model of stakeholder engagement to a pragmatic trial for people with mental disorders. Psychiatric Services, 69(11), 1127-1130.

Program Facilitators and Barriers

The success of a health program depends on how it copes with forces. Typically, these forces could be facilitators or barriers hampering project implementation. One of the major community forces that may facilitate my program is community resources for mental wellness. Such resources include support groups, mental health institutions, and mental health practitioners. Their presence will promote program acceptance hence a less challenging implementation. The other crucial force is health partners. Organizations that promote health projects will be instrumental to the program’s success due to their financial and material support. Forces that may pose a challenge to my program include health literacy and inadequate resources. Attitudes toward health programs vary with health literacy (Sobral & Cunha, 2019; Silva & Santos, 2021). Accordingly, attitude problems would be encountered among participants will low education levels. Literacy levels would also affect comprehension of the program and its benefits.

Barriers to program design can be overcome through interventions that can be applied individually or jointly. The most appropriate strategy for addressing the resource problem is seeking multiple sources, including grants and donations. Multiple sources of capital funding help to accumulate resources to fund different program components (Rural Health Information Hub, 2021). Sending grant proposals and donation requests to health care partners and community health support groups can help to address the resource problems.

Questions to Address the Health Literacy Problem

  1. Populations vary in beliefs, education levels, and attitudes toward health. What is the main cause of the varying health literacy levels and how does it affect health outcomes?
  2. Health care promoters can use different health education strategies. What is the most effective strategy for populations with low education levels?
  3. How should a health care provider deal with noncompliant populations due to low health literacy?


Rural Health Information Hub. (2021). Capital funding for healthcare.

Silva, M. J., & Santos, P. (2021). The impact of health literacy on knowledge and attitudes towards preventive strategies against COVID-19: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(10), 5421.

Sobral, M., & Cunha, A. (2019). Health literacy and health attitudes and behaviors in college students: An exploratory study. European Journal of Public Health, 29(Supplement_1), ckz034-030.

Business Planning and Strategic Planning

Health promotion programs are resource-intensive and time-consuming. As a result, adequate planning and detailed awareness of the goals and projected outcomes are vital. The prospective impact of a business plan on the strategic planning of a program is promoting a goal-driven and outcome-oriented process. A business plan serves as the foundation of a program’s strategic planning. Typically, a business plan contains short-term goals and appropriate steps to achieve them. Vital in successful health programs, strategic planning focuses on long-term goals and outlines the strategies for achieving the goals (Issel et al., 2021). The business plan is the foundation for strategic planning since long-term goals cannot be achieved without short-term goals.

The logic model and program theory models can further outline the connection between different planning components and approaches. The logic model is that inputs trigger program deliverables (outputs). Balmer et al. (2019) explained that the desired outcomes are achieved through a logical sequence and are facilitated by sufficient resources and sound activities. As a result, how goals lead to outcomes in a logical sequence is the foundation of logical theory. A similar approach is crucial in business planning and strategic planning to ensure that short-term goals facilitate the achievement of long-term goals. According to Adams and Neville (2020), program theory models promote a theory-guided approach in project implementation and evaluation. They promote a causal process and demonstrate the connection between intermediate and final outcomes.

Business planning relates to program planning since the latter applies a business approach. As Issel et al. (2021) explained, program planning begins with problem identification before other phases, such as design, implementation, and evaluation. Like business planning, where goals guide a business in everyday activities, the problem requiring an effective solution guides program implementers in the entire planning process. A program plan should also have explicit goals and objectives, like a business plan.


Adams, J., & Neville, S. (2020). Program evaluation for health professionals: What it is, what it isn’t and how to do it. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 19, 1609406920964345.

Balmer, D. F., Rama, J. A., & Simpson, D. (2019). Program evaluation models: Evaluating processes and outcomes in graduate medical education. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, 11(1), 99–100.

Issel, L. M., Wells, R., & Williams, M. (2021). Health program planning and evaluation: A practical systematic approach to community health. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Financial Analysis

Health care programs should lead to positive outcomes.  The most appropriate financial analysis method for my program is a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). A CBA compares the financial costs and benefits of a health intervention and expresses them in monetary units (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2021). The program costs include expenses for implementing the intervention, while the benefits represent the financial gains of an intervention. Common health gains for my health program include medical costs averted and the monetized value of health improvements (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2021). Generally, CBA provides the benefit of a project as the net benefits minus the costs to demonstrate its quantifiable value.

The main financial implication of not addressing mental wellness among young mothers is increased medical spending. Recent estimates show that the economic burden of depression among adults in the United States is $236.6 billion annually (Greenberg et al., 2021). Accordingly, failing to address this problem through mental wellness promotion will trigger a progressive increase in medical spending for depression. Long-term implications include a population characterized by a declining productivity and increased exposure to chronic diseases since depression increases vulnerability to chronic health problems (Bobo et al., 2022). Short-term implications include increased hospital visits for mental disorders and inability for young mothers to raise healthy children.

The selected financial analysis (CBA) relates to the quality of program outcomes since it is outcome-driven. A CBA examines the profitability of a health program over a particular period (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2021). Its hypothesis is that quality programs are profitable and financially beneficial. As a result, a positive balance after deducting costs from financial benefits is a reliable indicator of the quality of program outcomes.


Bobo, W. V., Grossardt, B. R., Virani, S., St Sauver, J. L., Boyd, C. M., & Rocca, W. A. (2022). Association of depression and anxiety with the accumulation of chronic conditions. JAMA Network Open, 5(5), e229817-e229817. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.9817

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). Cost-benefit analysis.,(CEA)%20include%20health%20outcomes.

Greenberg, P. E., Fournier, A. A., Sisitsky, T., Simes, M., Berman, R., Koenigsberg, S. H., & Kessler, R. C. (2021). The economic burden of adults with major depressive disorder in the United States (2010 and 2018). Pharmacoeconomics, 39(6), 653-665.

Evaluation Model and Evaluation Timeline

Program evaluation is a critical phase since health promoters should assess the project’s feasibility. The evaluation also justifies the use of various resources in the implementation. The most appropriate evaluation model to support the program plan is the logic evaluation model. Balmer et al. (2019) explained that the logic model illustrates program development, implementation process, and evaluation using a single flow chart that displays the relationship between different components. Generally, the logic model visualizes the evaluation and demonstrates it as a phase that succeeds program development and implementation. The logic model is established on the principle that sufficient resources and sound activities lead to desired outcomes achieved through a logical sequence (Adams & Neville, 2020). When using the logic model, program evaluators examine how resources (inputs) and activities trigger outputs (program deliverables) and outcomes.

The logic evaluation model has a rich history. According to Raymond and Morrow (2022), the logic model was first used by private foundations using a sequential approach to analyze the connection between resources, activities, and impacts. During the evaluation, project leaders examine the connection between planned work and the intended results. Like other models, the logic model is widely applied outside nursing. Raymond and Morrow (2022) noted that it is used in business organizations to link outcomes with project activities. It can also be used to illustrate the link between processes and theoretical assumptions.

Evaluation Timeline

Approach Data Use Timeline
Performance measurement Feedback on program performance 4th-6th month
Monitoring Feedback on program operations 4th-6th month
Summative evaluation Feedback on program results 6th month

Rationale: the evaluation plan outlines when to start evaluating the project and the approach. Performance measurement and monitoring are the foundation of summative evaluation. Hence, data related to them should commence early (4th month). The summative evaluation is the overall evaluation and should be conducted after the program to examine its feasibility.


Adams, J., & Neville, S. (2020). Program evaluation for health professionals: What it is, what it isn’t and how to do it. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 19, 1609406920964345.

Balmer, D. F., Rama, J. A., & Simpson, D. (2019). Program evaluation models: Evaluating processes and outcomes in graduate medical education. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, 11(1), 99–100.

Raymond, J. L., & Morrow, K. (2022). Krause and Mahan’s food and the nutrition care process, 16e, E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Assessing the Appropriateness of the Evaluation Plan

Evaluation Approach Focus Elements Measurement/evaluation techniques Data Use Timeline
Performance measurement Program performance Cost-benefit analysis Feedback on program performance 4th-6th month
Monitoring Program management, progressive performance Observations, interviews, etc. Feedback on program operations 4th-6th month
Summative evaluation Overall program outcomes/results Cost-benefit analysis Feedback on program results 6th month

The importance of evaluation in health programs cannot be underestimated. It gives insights into a program’s outcomes and whether it achieved the desired goals. The primary purpose of the current program’s evaluation is to determine whether the mental wellness program achieved the projected outcomes. Effective evaluation should be logical and outcome-centered (Balmer et al., 2019). Generally, the above evaluation is outcome-driven. The overall approach demonstrates an evaluation plan with the essential elements to facilitate adequate data collection and a detailed evaluation. The performance measurement-monitoring-summative evaluation intersection necessitates an in-depth understanding of the type of data to collect in each case, technique, and the use of data.

As evaluation, appropriate application of performance measurement, monitoring, and summative evaluation implies using their data to give insights into the program performance to guide current or future improvement. In health programs, the primary purpose of performance management is external reporting (Porche, 2021). Consequently, commencing it in the fourth month will give external stakeholders adequate data on program performance. Monitoring is a managerial aspect; it will give the necessary data to the project leader/administrator regarding program operations. Program evaluation facilitates program and policy improvement (Kaczmarek & Romaniuk, 2020; Porche, 2021). Accordingly, summative evaluation will provide essential feedback about the program’s impacts on policymakers, planners, and internal stakeholders.


Balmer, D. F., Rama, J. A., & Simpson, D. (2019). Program evaluation models: Evaluating processes and outcomes in graduate medical education. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, 11(1), 99–100.

Kaczmarek, K., & Romaniuk, P. (2020). The use of evaluation methods for the overall assessment of health policy: Potential and limitations. Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E, 18, 43.

Porche, D. J. (2021). Health policy: Application for nurses and other healthcare professionals. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Disseminating Results

Health programs are designed and implemented to improve individual and community health. However, ethical and legal risks are typical hence the need for program implementers to understand possible sources and how to evade them. After implementing and evaluating a program, the findings should be shared with other health care professionals and stakeholders. Dissemination entails sharing knowledge with other professional practitioners and researchers to promote evidence-based practice and positive clinical changes (Ross-Hellauer et al., 2020). The selection of appropriate dissemination channels is instrumental to a successful process.

A detailed program design and evaluation assessment demonstrates a program designed to benefit the community. It is founded on the principle that all individuals deserve quality, accessible, and equitable care. The evaluation is also designed to examine whether the targeted goals are achieved. Regarding ethical implications, the program demonstrates beneficence. According to Varkey (2021), the beneficence principle of medical ethics underscores acting on behalf of others, defending their rights, and removing conditions that cause harm. Similarly, the project is designed to remove community illnesses as harmful conditions.

Dissemination strategies vary with the type of project and dissemination resources. A professional journal where I could publish my results is the Journal of Community & Public Health Nursing. It is an appropriate choice since the project promotes public health by teaching the target population about health issues. Health literacy improves health and well-being by helping people to make correct health decisions. The other dissemination strategy is publishing an issue brief. Brownson et al. (2018) defined an issue brief as a summary of research information enhanced with charts and tables. It is an effective dissemination channel for internal use to ensure people within the organization understand the health program and its benefits.


Brownson, R. C., Eyler, A. A., Harris, J. K., Moore, J. B., & Tabak, R. G. (2018). Getting the word out: new approaches for disseminating public health science. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 24(2), 102-111. doi: 10.1097/PHH.0000000000000673

Ross-Hellauer, T., Tennant, J. P., Banelytė, V., Gorogh, E., Luzi, D., Kraker, P., Pisacane, L., Ruggieri, R., Sifacaki, E., & Vignoli, M. (2020). Ten simple rules for innovative dissemination of research. PLoS Computational Biology, 16(4), e1007704.

Varkey B. (2021). Principles of clinical ethics and their application to practice. Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre, 30(1), 17–28.

Advancement of the Profession

Health care professionals are mandated to provide quality care and engage in health promotion. As a result, an in-depth understanding of health and health problems is crucial to facilitate effective intervention. Health care professionals should improve their competence progressively to improve their clinical decision-making and judgment (Belita et al., 2020). Accurate decisions help to prevent medical errors and other sources of adverse events in health care settings. Progressive growth requires health care practitioners to embrace change and engage in activities that help them to learn and improve as professionals and leaders.

One of the significant areas of growth and inquiry related to my anticipated professional contribution is evidence-based practice (EBP). In health practice, EBP integrates scientific evidence, clinical expertise, and patient values and preferences to improve outcomes (Lehane et al., 2019). As a critical component of EBP, generating scientific evidence requires health care practitioners to study health problems and experiment the outcomes of different interventions. Implementing community-based health projects helps health care professionals to study the outcomes of health interventions in different populations. Besides, they share different findings to promote practice change in other areas.

The other significant growth area is clinical inquiry. In everyday practice, nurses should identify an area that guides them in professional development. Nurse-led clinical inquiry is central to professional development since it gives nurses a strong foundation for career advancement (DeGrazia et al., 2019). Nurses with a spirit of clinical inquiry explore health problems and are determined to provide lasting solutions. They also learn more to understand the intersection between health and illness. Above all, they are interested in improving EBP outcomes and sustaining an EBP culture in health care settings.


Belita, E., Squires, J. E., Yost, J., Ganann, R., Burnett, T., & Dobbins, M. (2020). Measures of evidence-informed decision-making competence attributes: A psychometric systematic review. BMC Nursing, 19(1), 1-28.

DeGrazia, M., Difazio, R. L., Connor, J. A., & Hickey, P. A. (2019). Building and sustaining a culture of clinical inquiry in a pediatric quaternary hospital. JONA: The Journal of Nursing Administration, 49(1), 28-34. doi: 10.1097/NNA.0000000000000704

Lehane, E., Leahy-Warren, P., O’Riordan, C., Savage, E., Drennan, J., O’Tuathaigh, C., … & Hegarty, J. (2019). Evidence-based practice education for healthcare professions: an expert view. BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine, 24(3), 103-108.

BUY A CUSTOM- PAPER HERE ON; NURS 8400 Discussions Paper

This Paper will be assigned to the same person writing my other assignment it is important to keep the same topic tone- For instance the topic in other 17page paper is health promotion you can choose any mental health topic but do not chose bipolar or you may chose like vaccination/ hand washing any interesting yet simple topic. With recent data. I prefer mental health but open to the simple topics.
NURS 8400- Each section will be one-page each-You must insert three references on each page. APA 7 and only references within the last 5 YEARS AND only American scholarly references- References must be inserted right after each page -DO NOT COMBINE REFERENCES

Discussion: Defining Social Problems
In this course, Design and Evaluation of Programs and Projects, you examine aspects of program planning and evaluation while also engaging in a Practicum Experience. You may notice the differing terminologies and approaches that are applied in various circumstances. For instance, you are likely quite familiar with the phrase “health problem” from your previous coursework and professional practice. This Discussion looks at understanding “social problems” as part of a framework for program design. What is the distinction between these terms? Why is it important to notice this divergence?
Problem analysis is a cornerstone for effective program planning and should be conducted at the outset. With this first Discussion, begin to pay close attention to the language and perspectives that will inform your program planning work as you move forward in the course.
To prepare:
• Consider the following scenario:
• Data from the Appalachian region show lower numbers of women receiving mammograms compared to the national average, indicating a need to increase use of this procedure in this area. However, the data also show that women from this region are reluctant to participate because of their attitudes toward mammograms (Royse & Dignan, 2009).
• Review Chapter 1 of Designing and Managing Programs to be sure you have a clear understanding of the sequencing of program design and evaluation, as well as the importance of each element of this process.
• Why is it important to avoid stating the problem as a solution?
• How does this scenario illustrate a “social problem”?
• What responses to the problem analysis framework questions (pp. 45-49) could you develop given the information provided?
The book name is “ Then, review Chapter 3. Analyze the scenario above in light of the concepts presented: Kettner, P. M., Moroney, R. M., & Martin, L. L. (2008). Designing and managing programs: An effectiveness-based approach (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

• Page 1- Describe three key insights or strategies you would share with your team if you were engaged in planning for a program related to the scenario described above.
• How do you expect that your intended approach to developing an understanding of social problems could affect program planning? Be sure to support your response.

Next Page 2
The cohesive scholarly response addresses the following: PLEASE ENSURE YOU USE THE SAME HEALTH PROMOTIONS AS THE ASSIGNMENT I GAVE YOU
• Share the national health-promotion and disease-prevention issue you have selected. Describe the problem and target population you will most likely choose for Application 1, as you have considered it thus far.
• Provide your evaluation of the impact of the problem on population health using citations from existing literature.
• Pose any questions or concerns you have related to your problem and target population, your literature review, and/or other issues related to designing and evaluating programs. Ask your colleagues for support in addressing these questions or concerns.
Next Page 3
Post a cohesive scholarly response that addresses the following:
• Describe the theory or model most appropriate to your problem. Justify the choice of your theory/model as it relates to your problem.
• What field developed this theory or model? Briefly describe how it has been applied in fields other than nursing, and explain how it has been appropriately applied within nursing. Provide at least one example from the literature to support your response.
Next Page 4
• Discuss how you would conduct a needs assessment for your selected problem and the target population. Why is this approach appropriate for the problem you have identified? Support your response with evidence from the literature.
• Describe your proposed data collection methods and evaluate any challenges you might encounter.

Next Page 5
Write a cohesive scholarly response that addresses the following:
• Why is it important for representatives from the target population to be involved in developing the goals and objectives for the program?
• How could you involve the representatives from the target population in designing the program?
• What strategies could be used to navigate disagreements or lack of interest?

Next Page 6
Write a cohesive scholarly response that addresses the following:
• Analyze two or more community, client, organization, and/or environmental forces that may facilitate your program and two or more that may pose a challenge for your program.
• Propose a strategy for addressing one of the barriers as a part of your program design.
• Ask questions of your colleagues regarding how you might address the other challenge.

Next Page 7
Write a cohesive scholarly response that addresses the following:
• What is the prospective impact of a business plan on the strategic planning of a program? Support your response with references to the logic model and program theory models.
• How does business planning relate to program planning? Support your response with an example from the literature.

Next Page 8
Write a cohesive scholarly response that addresses the following:
• Which method of financial analysis is most appropriate for your program? Provide your rationale.
• What are the financial implications of not addressing the problem you have identified for your target population?
• What are the differences between the long-term and the short-term implications of not addressing the problem?
• How does your selected financial analysis strategy relate to the quality of program outcomes?

Next Page 9
Write a cohesive scholarly response that addresses the following:
• Identify an evaluation theory or model that is most appropriate to support your program plan. Explain which field developed this theory or model, and describe how it has been applied in fields other than nursing. Support your response with evidence from the literature.
• Share a timeline that articulates how and when you would engage in various elements of evaluation for the program you have been developing. Be as specific as possible, and provide your rationale for each decision point.
Next Page 10
Evaluation in progress
Write a cohesive scholarly response that addresses the following:
• Assess the appropriateness of the evaluation plan and share other information or insights as it relates to the evaluation approach.
• Include a full citation of your selected article.

Next Page 11- Part A
Disseminating Results

Write a cohesive scholarly response that addresses the following:
• Assess your program design and evaluation, including the ethical implications of the program you have developed.
• Identify at least one professional journal in which you could publish the results of your program design and evaluation, and describe at least one other venue that could provide a valuable forum for disseminating results.

Next Page 12- Part B
Advancement of the Profession
Write a cohesive scholarly response that addresses the following:
Discuss two or more significant areas of growth, insight, or inquiry related to your anticipated professional contribution and/or leadership


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